Thursday, November 28, 2019

I Am Not that Women, Poem by Kishwar Naheed Summary Essay Example

I Am Not that Women, Poem by Kishwar Naheed: Summary Paper Summary of I Am Not that Women (Essay) The poems I am not that women by Kishwar Naheed and women work by Mayo Angelou show the struggles of two black women from different cultures. Compare and contrast the two womens experiences. The two poems I am not that women by Kishwar Naheed and Women Work by Mayo Angelou are two examples of how black women were treated in these days. The poems come from two different backgrounds but each have similarities and differences. In this essay, I intend to compare and contrast the two poems to hopefully give a better understanding of the two poems, and show how the two women faced exploitation and oppression. The purpose of these poems is to highlight the lives and difficulties of women from other cultures and traditions. Poetry is the chosen medium for these two writers, it gave them a way to express there true feelings and opinions without the fear of getting abused for sharing them. Mayo Angelou is a highly respected and educated black American who is writing about the daily struggle of a working class woman. Her escape is her mind, her flight of fantasy, as she pleads to another women (mother nature) to release her. Kishwar Naheed is also a highly educated, successful woman who takes on the customs and traditions of her Asian background. Main Theme of the Poem I Am Not that Women We will write a custom essay sample on I Am Not that Women, Poem by Kishwar Naheed: Summary specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on I Am Not that Women, Poem by Kishwar Naheed: Summary specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on I Am Not that Women, Poem by Kishwar Naheed: Summary specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This poem I am not that women tells of the difficulties that a particular women faces in her struggle against a male dominated society (patriarchal). I am not that women is a poem by Kishwar Naheed, it displays the issues of discrimination against women and how men treated them. The title of this poem is a strong positive sentence I am not that women she (whether it be the poet or a made up women) is not the usual women who is treated harshly by men, she is the women who is going to stand up for the right of equal-ness! This gives the poem a bit of authority at the start. The stanzas are not of any regular pattern, the first stanza consists of 6 lines where as some of them are run on lines. The first stanza starts with I am which Is repeated variously around the poem, this gives a strong voice across to give enthusiasm to I am so the reader remembers this statement. It also gives the impression that this women is a person and she does exist, its stating a positive fact. I am is followed by selling you socks and shoes this is here to point out that she isnt just here for the mans benefit, to be here just to get the mans shoes and socks for them but here for their own benefit, to enjoy themselves. This sentence is ended with a exclamation mark, this is used for effect to give the sense of a strong statement being made. Another strong statement that is used throughout the poem is remember me this is again her plea to extinguish her existence. She is making herself the subject of this poem by always bringing herself into the topic remember me and I am. This statement remember me is followed by I am the one you hid in your walls of stone suggesting that this man that the poem is aimed at is trapping her at home and making her do the house work. not knowing that my voice cannot be smothered by stone although she is stuck in this house she will be heard no matter what and she makes the point of saying this. I am is again used at the beginning of stanza 2 but in a different way. The difference is a positive statement where she is recognises that she is an individual who cannot be abused. Instead of stating that she is the women, she states she isnt the women who was crushed by custom and tradition This statement recognises that men can treat women in an appalling manner knowing full well that men have the right to treat women how they wish. The word crushed is a very strong harsh verb, which shows the strengths of the oppression. Custom and tradition is being introduced in this stanza with the weight of custom and tradition she has no one or no where to turn to, the men in society can crush as every man does as its the custom and tradition to do so. This is another sign of entrapment and discrimination. The poet uses imagery in this stanza to again bring across the effects of this kind of treatment that light cannot be hidden in darkness this is a metaphor of light against dark. Light is a representive of the light of knowledge showing that women will one day break out of this trap and see the potential they can reach. After this proclamation remember me is repeated, another sign to draw attention to her plight, asking the men to remember her. There is a use of sexual imagery that reflects the tension between being loved and being owned. The imagery of flowers I am the one in whose lap you picked flowers and planted thorns and embers shows as she feels she has being picked, enjoyed for her beauty and thrown away. The word chains in this sentence show how she is chained, locked in her house only there for the use of men. Smother is another harsh verb that is used like crushed in stanza one bringing the feeling of death and entrapment. She could feel claustrophobic, she is stuck in this house twenty four seven only for the enjoyment of the man. This stanza as well as others uses short sharp lines for effect, this is here to represent how abruptly she says this, how quick she wants to say this and forget about the hurt she is facing. Repition again is used as an opening for stanza three with I am This stanza is aimed at how she feels she is being bought and then sold off, how she feels dirty because of this. Whom you bought and sold you can tell this women is educated by the language she uses in this sentence whom. In the name of my own chastity this man has obviously used her for sex, took her virginity off her and then thrown it back in her face. The value of virginity in Asian countries at this time was very strong. Women tended to keep there virginity until they were with the person they loved and wanted to spend the rest of there lives with, so being treated like this with a thing as precious as virginity has made this women so angry, made her feel like nothing, like dirt on the floor, but with all the trouble hes causing her she gets back up to fight again that I can walk on water when I am drowning Before this sentence she refers to the man as him not knowing that she is this strong that she can get back up when pushed down not knowing. Stanza four is different to any of the other stanzas, the poet is now addressing a different man, her father. I am the one you married off to get rid of a burden this tells us how she has being married off by her father so he doesnt have the responsibilities of her, this was called dowry, where the father of a women paid a man to marry her. The word burden is a common noun which is used to describe a thing, this women isnt a thing though, she is a person with her own personality her own freedom, her own way of living. The poet is always fighting with the thoughts of these men by using I am not and not knowing suggesting they dont know whats right and who she is. She uses not knowing again that a nation of captive minds cannot be free to suggest that this man and all other men are trapping these women and using them for indecent purposes. Stanza 5 ends the poem but with a slight change at the end. The word commodity is used at the beginning of this stanza to make out shes a thing that people trade in when they arent satisfied. My chastity, my motherhood, my loyalty There is no love shown here, this women is only wanted for her pureness, her ability to make children and her loyalty as a wife. This line follows off with a referral to stanza 2 now it is time for me to flower free this is stating she isnt going to keep being used for something as precious as her pureness, shes going to keep that special and keep it for someone who can treat it with the right respect. The perspective of the poem changes here with the use of alliteration and imagery of flowers, she is making a stand, setting her standards for the use of not just herself, but for women universal. The last 3 lines of this stanza tell the audience how she is making her peace the women on that poster, half-naked, selling socks and shoes she was that women who was bought and sold but now she is breaking free no no I am not that women this is a strong positive ending making it feel triumphant. The punctuation used here is for effect to make the poem move. The poem Women Work by Mayo Angelou expresses a more personal point of view towards work and life where as in I am not that women Naheed is writing for universal women in equality and Oppression that she sees from her own personal point of view. Mayo Angelou is writing from her own feelings, her own daily life and very narrow perspective. The poem Women Work by Mayo Angelou is about black women in rural living conditions and explains the work done by a woman. The poem starts with a tedious list of jobs using no punctuation to make the reading of the poem fast to reflect the pace of the day. This also show the types of work she has to do, including back breaking ones the cane to cut. This is a sing song effect to make this easy to read, as there is no time for detail with the amount of work she has to do, this stanza also includes rhyming couplets again to make it an easy read. The repetition of pro noun I reinforces how much she has to do in a day. This builds up a feeling of repition, tediousness and routine. The poet uses colloquial expressions to show nationality in this stanza with I gotta clean up this hut this too shows nationality with the word hut. This stanza reveals quite a lot about the women and her daily life, but this stanza is different to the others. The rhythm, structure and rhyme all change in stanza 2. The rhyme scheme is now ABCB, where instead off rhyming couplets we have the 2nd line rhyming with the 4th line. The rhythm changes as it goes a lot slower now, she is now describing what she wants not what she has to do. These changes are made when she begins to appeal for peace from routine, she wants this time to go slow thats why the rhythm has changed and isnt all fast like the first stanza. This stanza and the following refer to nature shine on me, sunshine rain on me , rain fall softly, dewdrops and cool my brow again She wants nature to cool her down to relax her, suggesting she is hot and bothered. She uses alliteration in her requests to bring across the amount of relaxment she wishes for. Its the same in the next three stanzas, each uses a part of nature to represent the feeling of harmony she wants. Stanza 3 uses the imagery of wind with storm, blow me from here with your fiercest wind let me float across the sky til I can rest again this shows an imagery of death with let me float across the sky til I can rest again, she doesnt want the hassle anymore of work she wants to rest and be peaceful without the stress of work. The next stanza is imagery of ice and snowflakes fall gently, snowflakes cover me with white cold icy kisses and let me rest tonight this also again has imagery of death with cold icy kisses suggesting the kiss of death put her to sleep again so she doesnt have to suffer with the overload of work any more. Nature is her friend, this is a positive image of the snow kisses this is a repeated request for coolness. Alliteration is used to emphaysis this request for coolness. Cold icy kisses, almost a sadness in her words. These lines show she craves relaxation. The last verse another list of natural elements sun, rain, curving sky mountain, oceans, leaf and stone star shine, moon glow this lists the natural elements. Life is just a routine a list of chores to do. Everyday is structured by the harsh reality of life. Very poetic language is used in its appeal, she looks to nature to ease her life. This is dreamlike vision. The only thing she can turn to is nature youre all that I can call my own she cannot call anything her own as she posses nothing but as the weather is neutral she can call it her own as its the only thing not giving her any stress! I have analysed these two poems and found a lot of similarities and differences between them both. Both poems come from different backgrounds and even though they are aimed at the same type of problem they come from very different perspectives. Women Work is a more personal point of view where as I am not that women is writing for universal women and sticking up for the rights of others. I Am Not that Women: Conclusion v The tone of both poems is very different as well I am not that women is a more strong voice with attitude and harshness whereas Women Work is more mellow but frustrated, this women is giving feelings of her daily lifestyle and the sadness she is being put through, she gives wishes as well, things she wants to feel. Both of these poems included metaphors, repition and alliteration for effect of feeling emotions. Women Work uses rhyming couplets and a ABCB rhyme scheme, which is not used in I am not that women, this poem goes without rhyme. The stanza length varies in each poem but Women Work has a regular pattern after stanza one with ABCB. I like theses two poems, I prefer I am not that women as it is more aggressive while Women Work relaxes near the middle and doesnt show as much anger towards the men of society. Times have changed in the last 60 years, Women are now not as discriminated as they used to be, men have more respect for them. It is to poets like Mayo Angelou and Kishwar Naheed that give us a sense of how women were treated and how times have changed for the better.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Ernest Hemingway Example

Ernest Hemingway Example Ernest Hemingway – Term Paper Example Running head: ERNEST HEMINGWAY Ernest Hemingway ERNEST HEMINGWAY 2 Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingways novel â€Å"AFarewell to Arms† may contain one of the most desolate plots in all of the authors works (Istomina 761), but it is the novel that etched his place in the world of American Modern Literature. This novel is largely based on the authors real-life love story with an American nurse during his volunteer work with the Italian Army. The bitterness and desperation that the author went through with his first love is evident in this work. It is also said that his work shows the influences of his contemporaries (Dieguez 175) during the American Modern Literature era. In this novel, allusions to his lifes views and love affairs can be seen through styles and word play that are both the writers own and acquired from other writer friends. â€Å"A Farewell to Arms† was published in 1929, and talks about the authors real life experiences as a volunteer during the war. It i s a tragic love-story set during the World War I (Dieguez 175) that depicts the doomed love affair between Henry Frederic and Catherine Barkley (Istomina 761). Here, he is able to portray destruction and tragedy that is either brought upon ones self (i.e. poor judgment) or by inevitable and uncontrollable circumstances (i.e. wars) (Dieguez 178-9). Hemingway named several of his contemporaries as having important influence in his writing (Istomina 761). Some of these are Gertrude Stein, Ring Lardner, Ezra Pound, and Sherwood Anderson (Svoboda 173). Pound is one of Hemingways friends and is said to have taught him the concept of accurate representation or image in exchange for Hemingways lessons in boxing. This influence can be seen all throughout the novel particularly in his use of symbolism (Dieguez 198). For example, Hemingway speaks of the rain to symbolize the gloomy situations - something that can be considered as an accurate ERNEST HEMINGWAY 3representation of feeling s and foreshadowing of events (Svoboda 174). Additionally, Stein, much like Pound, is also one of Hemingways friends. She provided Hemingway with the concept of colloquialism that Hemingway utilized in his earlier published works. This is the use of present participles, prepositional phrases, and word repetition, which can also be seen in the novel â€Å"A Farewell to Arms.† Hemingways repetition of the word rain, wet, and water spoke of several of the authors feelings and thoughts in lesser lines (Dieguez 196). Furthermore, Hemingway had influences from other artists during his time. For example, Hemingways texts can be compared in a way to Cezanne paintings in terms of a sacred-like and simple touch (Svoboda 173). It can therefore be said that Hemingway is able to utilize such valuable influences from other artists to create the story that obviously refers to things that are personal to him. The amalgamation of the authors talent, his experiences, and the brilliant utilizat ion of various styles gained him his place in the world of literature.ReferencesDieguez, S. (September 08, 2010). A man can be destroyed but not defeated: Ernest Hemingways near-death experience and declining health. Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience, 27, 174-206.Istomina, J. (January 01, 2010). Ernest Hemingway. The Antioch Review, 68, 4, 761.Svoboda, F. J. (November 24, 2010). Art Matters: Hemingway, Craft, and the Creation of the Modern Short Story (review). The Hemingway Review, 30, 1, 173-175.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Teams and Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Teams and Leadership - Essay Example Moreover, some of my personal attributes such as remaining calm and composed even during tough times, ability to delegate duties to people easily and self-confidence anchor the suitability of the role of chairman. The role of chairman needs someone who can be decisive when necessary, an example well portrayed when I had to decide and convince the team members that we needed a clear set of achievable objectives. This happened when we were having difficulties moving forward since every team member had different opinions and the argument was getting out of hand. The team members also listen and respect my inputs into the team just as I strive to give an ear to every team member. In regard to the above mentioned attributes, the example actions and outcomes can be used to justify my agreement with the role of chairman of the team who is the social leader of the group and is tasked with ensuring that all team members contribute fully (Fisher, Hunter & Macrosson, 2001). Part 2 For a team to perform successfully and fully achieve its objectives, it is imperative that all the Beblin’s roles are implemented when tackling tasks (Belbin, 2010a). Sometimes, despite clear roles and responsibilities, it can occur that a team is not performing at its best and falls short of its full potential. Absence of one or many roles in a team may have various implications to the team which could lead to underperformance or total non-performance of the team. Firstly, lack of implementation of all the Beblin’s roles can lead to a team becoming unbalanced and lacking focus. For example, lack of proper delegation of roles may lead to the team having to many people performing one role which may lead to unhealthy competition between team members thus derailing the team. Conversely, if no member has been identified to perform a certain role, the team may end up lacking in that field and fail to achieve its objectives. Secondly, if all the Beblin’s roles are not implemented when tackling tasks, the team may find that it is not able to get the job done or achieve its objectives. This is because those who are needed to turn the team’s ideas and concepts into practice are lacking. The team therefore becomes stagnant and fails to achieve its objectives (Beblin, 2010b). The team identified and delegated to the team members the roles of Coordinator or Chairman who was tasked with the overall social leadership of the group, Implementers who turned the ideas into practical actions and plans, Team Workers who were responsible for overseeing the general working of all members as a team, Monitor-Evaluators who analyzed the ideas and proposals presented by others and were also tasked with monitoring the overall progress of the team, Plants to come up with new ideas and approaches, and a Completer-Finisher to ensure that the team delivers in time and deadlines are met (Belbin, 2010b). The team, however, lacked shapers to ensure that the team did not become c omplacent or stuck when faced with a challenge. Therefore, the team was prone to become ineffective when faced with new problems. Lack of shaper in the team could lead to inertia and possibility of team members quitting due to lack of encouragement to push on and how to find the best approaches to solving problems. The team also lacked a resource investigator to lead the team in exploring new ideas and

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Business report based on the a given case study. Highland Limited Essay

Business report based on the a given case study. Highland Limited - Essay Example Frank in order to repay the loan had to sell of his centre at Shiel Bridge. Frank Rose took help from his wife Fiona and Andrew Robertson who were willing to put in funds and thereafter Fiona and Andrew took over the running of the business. Frank Rose concentrated more on the Outdoor Centre while Fiona looked after the accounts and Andrew became the Managing Director. The business operated from small cottage. The company moved into a new location in April 2008 and one of the main customers of Highland Limited, Weir’s of Glasgow made the company big enough to get viable. The relationships between the staff were informal. But steadily the employment increased post November 2008. The company did not have enough resources to meet the demands of the market and thus the company did not make any attempt to attract new customs. Approaches to retailers were discouraged as Andrew Robertson believed that until they had the capacity to satisfy the demands of the market it would not be pr ofitable to go to the retailers. The company faced a twist when it had started operating with Stoner garment, a brand of western Oil Limited. The company was eager to supply waterproof and protective clothing to the lucrative market of about 2000 workers. This provided Highland Limited with an advantage as being a local supplier the company would be able to produce jackets according to the demands and deliver at a minimal time. Therefore Highland Limited together with Stoner Garments decided to design jackets which would be acceptable to Western Oil in terms of both quality and price. Therefore by providing garments to the Western Oil the company was able to achieve success and the legal framework adopted by the company was applying the norms and regulation. Highland Limited was a company in which philosophy and raison d’etre mattered a great deal. The company realised that although the company objectives was to maximise the profits there were also secondary objectives which the company also wished to pursue. The objectives were embodied in the company’s philosophy but never written down. There was difference in the way people saw the philosophy. Thus the factors that the organisation needs to consider in reviewing its mission statement, goals and business plans for the future is firstly the company needs to develop a mission statement, a mission statement is only the starting point of the organisation. Next task is to identify a set of goals which would accomplish the organisations missions. The company needs to establish one year plan, three year and five year plan for expanding its market share in the market. Thus to achieve the goals the company have to develop short term objectives

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Examine the differences and similarities between European and Arabic Essay

Examine the differences and similarities between European and Arabic romanticism. Illustrate your answer with examples - Essay Example We might begin by distilling some of the central themes and features of the Romantic Movement in Europe. It first gained prominent in the later 18th century, as the Continent felt the pressures of rapid economic development, although it was with the industrialization of the 19th century that Romanticism reached its most influential period. Confronted with the transformation of life in Europe, with rapid industrialization and urbanization changing the very landscape, many authors, artists and others looked to strong emotion as a response, while the basic themes of literature were transformed. A preoccupation with nature in its wildest, untamed and purest form became a widespread concern in literary circles, while remembrance of a simpler, pastoral past was also a common subject. At the same time, there was a new focus on women and children, and on the heroic role of the storyteller or the artist as an important cultural figure, whose position should be exalted in society. All of this constituted a clear break with much of what had gone before it in European culture, but the issue before us here is whether this movement took on a similar character in Arabic literature, when a movement which has been characterized as ‘Romanticism’ arose there. A crucial difference between Arabic and European Romanticism is surely the time and circumstances of their inception. As noted above, European Romanticism was born of a period of extreme socioeconomic change in the region, and reached its height in the 19th century. Arabic Romanticism, by contrast, arose much later, with its zenith usually placed in the period between the First and Second World Wars. By the time Arabic Romanticism was having a major impact, European Romanticism had long since ceased to be a dynamic force. For example, al-Shadi was living in England as T. S. Eliot wrote, but was mainly interested in Victorian and Romantic poetry. Badawi (1985) formulates several possible reasons for the Arabic in terest in Romanticism rather than newer cultural movements in Europe. Chief among these is that it was still perhaps the most popular movement, and was ‘more spontaneous and emotional in its appeal’ (p.125). Perhaps they also identified with its aims, in making a break with previous European literary traditions, as they themselves sought to innovate in their own language. Also, Arabic Romanticism was at its height in a period of political, cultural and socioeconomic change for the Middle East, and shares that with the European movement. The circumstances were different for sure, with Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism, which flourished under European colonialism, as well as the rise of an urban middle class, being major changes, but movements found their roots in revolutionary periods. Of course, Arabic Romanticism, despite many similarities of theme and preoccupation, also differed in its aims. A major concern was its search for cultural identity, in a Middle East which was increasingly being westernized. The role of the Mahjar poets – those who had left for the Americas in search of cultural freedom and economic opportunity, also displayed some unique themes. A feeling of homesickness runs through many of their compositions. However,

Friday, November 15, 2019

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Experiment

White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Experiment Abstract White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to cause huge economic losses in the aquaculture farms due to rapid spread and broad host range. In this study, we synthesized a novel synthetic compound 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluoro benzisoxazole 2 and were screened for antiviral activity against WSSV using fresh water crabs Paratelphusa hydrodomous (Herbst). In vivo bio-assay was carried out to determine the antiviral activity. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Histopathology were used for the analysis of bio-assay. Overall result shows that the novel compound has strong antiviral potency against WSSV. Keywords: Paratelphusa hydrodomous, White spot syndrome virus, Synthetic compound, RT-PCR, Histopathology. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic whispovirus belongs to the family Nimaviridae responsible for causing white spot disease, leads to 100 % mortality within 3-10 days of infection in farmed shrimp (Sudheer et al., 2012). Several antiviral and immunostimulatory compounds are identified from terrestrial plants as well as from the marine origin were tested against WSSV. For example; Sulfated galactans isolated from red seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) exhibited immunostimulant and resistance against WSSV in Penaeus monodon (Wongprasert et al., 2014), Aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon showed strong antiviral activity against WSSV in marine shrimp (Balasubramanian et al., 2007). Synthetic compounds like Piperidines and Benzisoxazoles are important group of heterocyclic compounds in the field of medicinal chemistry. These compounds have significant biological and pharmacological properties like anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities (Gaba et al., 2014; Ramalingan et al., 2004) (Ramalingan, 2004 #21;Gaba, 2014 #22). Many fluorinated, benzisoxazole derivatives are currently used in the treatment of diseases (Prasad et al., 2009). In such a way, there is an immediate need for non-toxic drug to treat WSSV disease. Thus the present study was carried out to determine the antiviral activity and protective effect of a novel synthesized compound 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluorobenzisoxazole 2 (Fig. 1) against WSSV infection in fresh water rice-field crab P. hydrodomous, it was highly susceptible to WSSV (Sahul Hameed et al., 2001). A synthesis of novel 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluorobenzisoxazole was carried out under mild reaction conditions using 1.2 equivalents of calcium hypochlorite. Interestingly, the developed method does not involve any additives like acids or bases and provides 96 % of isolated yields at room temperature. This novel molecule, 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluorobenzisoxazole 2 was stable at ambient conditions and stereo chemistry was established the single crystal XRD technique. The materials were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, Merck and were used without any additional purification. All reactions were monitored by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Melting points were recorded on an Elchem digital melting point apparatus in open capillaries and are uncorrected. The 1H NMR was measured on a Bruker Avance-400 MHz instrument at room temperature. The 1H NMR was measured for ~0.03 M solutions in CDCl3 using TMS as internal reference. The accuracy of the 1H shifts is considered to be 0.02 p pm. The coupling constants J are in Hertz. Mass spectra were obtained using ESI mass spectrometry. 6-fluoro-3-(piperidin-4-yl) benzisoxazole 1 (5 g, 22.7 mmol) was taken into the round bottom flask dissolved in 50 mL of acetonitrile. To this calcium hypochlorite (3.9 g, 27.3mmol) was slowly added over ten to twenty minutes. Reaction was monitored by TLC. After the reaction completion, reaction mass was filtered and salts was washed with acetonitrile. Solvent was dried under reduced pressure. Crude solid was purified by column chromatography to give 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluorobenzisoxazole 2 in 96 % (5.54g, 21.8mmol) as pale yellow color solid. The structure of the N-chloro benzisoxazole was conà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ rmed from their spectral data from NMR, ES Mass and single crystal XRD. Mp: 81-83oC; 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d (ppm): 7.71-7.08 (m, 3H), 3.65 (d, 2H), 3.22 (t, 3H), 2.36-2.15(m, 4H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz) d (ppm): 165.3, 163.9, 162.8, 159.9, 122.6, 122.2, 122.1, 116.9, 112.4, 97.6, 97.4, 32.9; MS (ESI) m/z Calcd: 254.1, found: 253 (M-1); Single crystal crystal data 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluoro benzisoxazole 2 Mol. Formula:C12H12ClFN2O; CCDC reference number is 878706; Intensity data were collected on an APEX CCD diffract meter equipped with Mo–Ka (l = 0.7107 A °) radiation; Cell length a =5.8979(4); Cell length b=10.4965(7); Cell length c=19.1492(12); Cell Angle ÃŽ ±=90.0; Cell Angle ÃŽ ²=91.783; Cell Angle ÃŽ ³=90.0; Cell Volume=1184.90(11); The crystallographic data for N-chloro benzisoxazole have been deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. Copies of this information may be obtained free of charge from the Director, CCDC, 12 Union Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EZ, UK [Fax: 44(1223)336033, or http://]. The crabs P. hydrodomous (20-25 g body weight) were collected from the rice field located at kalavai, Vellore, India. Crabs were transported to the laboratory. A previous method was followed for maintaining the crabs and preparation of WSSV inoculum (Nambi et al., 2012). For in vivo determination of antiviral activity, the healthy crabs were divided into three groups contains 3 crabs per group and each trial was conducted in triplicates. Crabs in the group I were injected with 100  µl of a mixture of viral suspension and NTE buffer which served as positive control. In Group II crabs were injected with NTE buffer alone served as negative control. In Group III crabs were injected with viral suspension, novel compound and NTE buffer served as treated. The viral suspensions for all groups were incubated at room temperature for 3 h. Later it was injected into respective experimental groups intramuscularly. The experimental animals were examined twice per day for gross signs of disease, and the number of deaths was recorded until end of the experiment. Animals in the treated and negative control group were survived without any mortality and sign of WSSV infection until end of the experiment. Whereas the positive control group reached 100 % mortality at 7th day of post injection with gross signs including reduced feed consumption, less active in slow in movement. The observation of this bio-assay was plotted in a cumulative mortality graph (Fig. 2). Hemolymph from all the 3 groups was collected for hematological analysis (Total hemocyte count and clotting time). In positive control, there were significant reduction in total hemocyte counts as well as the hemolmph was failed to clot. No significant hematological changes were observed in between the negative and treated groups. For RT-PCR analysis; Gill, head-soft tissue, heart and muscle tissue were excised from each crabs of the experimental group and pooled together for extraction of total RNA using Trizol (Invitrogen, USA) according to the manufacturers instructions. cDNA was synthesized from 1.0ÃŽ ¼g of the total RNA using a One-step Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen, USA) as per the kit instructions and used as template for gene expression analysis of WSSV specific primer VP28. ÃŽ ²-actin served as an internal control for RNA quality and amplification efficiency. The sequences of primers used in this present study were given in Table 1. The cycling conditions are initial denaturation at 95 °C for 5 min followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 95 °C for 30 sec, annealing at 50 °C for 30 sec and extension at 72 °C for 30 sec with a final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. The amplified PCR products were electrophoresed in 1.0 % agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide and visualized by ultraviole t transilluminator. There were no bands was found for negative control and all the tissue cDNA templates from the treated crabs, a band came at 615 bp for positive control (Fig. 3A). Bands came well for the same templates subjected to ÃŽ ²-actin PCR (Fig. 3B). For histological analysis, a small portion of gill and head-soft tissue was taken from all the three experimental groups and was fixed in Davidson’s fixative for subsequent histological preparations (Bell and Lightner, 1988) with haematoxylin and eosin according to the standard protocol. The stained sections of gills and head-soft tissue from the control crabs show no histopathological changes (Fig. 4A 4B). Whereas in the positive control cells having hypertrophied nuclei with intranuclear inclusions typical for WSSV infection (Fig. 4C 4D). No significant changes were observed in treated group (Fig. 4E 4F) indicates no WSSV infection. In conclusion, a novel compound 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluorobenzisoxazole 2 derivatives showed strong antiviral activity against WSSV in fresh water crabs P. hydrodomous. This works may help to design a novel non-toxic drug to treat WSSV infection. Acknowledgements References Balasubramanian, G., Sarathi, M., Kumar, S.R., Hameed, A., 2007. Screening the antiviral activity of Indian medicinal plants against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp. Aquaculture 263, 15-19. Bell, T.A., Lightner, D.V., 1988. A handbook of normal penaeid shrimp histology. World aquaculture society, Baton Rouge, LA. Gaba, M., Singh, S., Mohan, C., 2014. Benzimidazole: An emerging scaffold for analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 76, 494-505. Nambi, K.N., Majeed, S.A., Raj, N.S., Taju, G., Madan, N., Vimal, S., Hameed, A.S., 2012. In vitro white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication in explants of the heart of freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodomous. J. Virol. Methods 183, 186-195. Natividad, K.D.T., Nomura, N., Matsumura, M., 2008. Detection of White spot syndrome virus DNA in pond soil using a 2-step nested PCR. J. Virol. Methods 149, 28-34. Prasad, S.B., Vinaya, K., Kumar, C.A., Swarup, S., Rangappa, K., 2009. Synthesis of novel 6-fluoro-3-(4-piperidinyl)-1, 2-benzisoxazole derivatives as antiproliferative agents: A structure–activity relationship study. Invest. New Drugs 27, 534-542. Ramalingan, C., Balasubramanian, S., Kabilan, S., Vasudevan, M., 2004. Synthesis and study of antibacterial and antifungal activities of novel 1-[2-(benzoxazol-2-yl) ethoxy]-2, 6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones. Eur. J. Med. chem. 39, 527-533. Sahul Hameed, A., Yoganandhan, K., Sathish, S., Rasheed, M., Murugan, V., Jayaraman, K., 2001. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in two species of freshwater crabs (Paratelphusa hydrodomous and P. pulvinata). Aquaculture 201, 179-186. Sudheer, N., Philip, R., Singh, I.B., 2012. Anti–white spot syndrome virus activity of Ceriops tagal aqueous extract in giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Arch Virol. 157, 1665-1675. Wongprasert, K., Rudtanatip, T., Praiboon, J., 2014. Immunostimulatory activity of sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri and development of resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Fish Shellfish immunol. 36, 52-60. Table 1 Primers used for the RT-PCR Primer name Sequence (5’- 3’) Annealing temperature Product size VP28-F ATG GAT CTT TCT TTC AC VP28-R TTA CTC GGT CTC AGT GC 50à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ °C 615 bp ÃŽ ²-actin-F ÃŽ ²-actin-R GTG CCC ATC TAC GAG GGA TA GTG TTG GCG TAC AGG TCC TT 55à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ °C 404 bp Fig. 1. Single crystal ORTEP diagram of the 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluoro benzisoxazole 2 Fig. 2. Cumulative mortality graph for the experimental groups. Fig. 3. (A) RT-PCR of WSSV envelope protein VP28 in different organs of treated group. Lane 1, 100 bp DNA marker; 2, WSSV positive control; 3, negative control; 4, gill; 5, head-soft tissue; 6, heart; 7, muscle tissue. (B) RT-PCR results of the same samples for ÃŽ ²-actin gene. Fig. 4. Photomicrographs of tissue from crabs of experimental groups: 4A gill and 4B head-soft tissue of negative control showing normal cells (Arrow); 4C gill and 4D head-soft tissue of positive control showing hypertrophied nuclei with intranuclear inclusions (Arrow); 4E gill and 4F head-soft tissue of treated group showing uninfected (Arrow). Original magnification: 1000 X.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The Lyrics of My Grandmothers Life :: Music Personal Narrative Papers

The Lyrics of My Grandmother's Life At age seven she was a star on stage, singing the role of "Becky" in the Tom Sawyer operetta. When she was ten she dunked "Mouse's" head in the teapot as the "Mad Hatter" in Alice and Wonderland. She was hoping to be "Alice", but even back then the eighth graders got all the good parts. But the experience was satisfying anyway because "Mouse" was played by her grade school rival, the same girl who competed with her for the best position on the basketball team and who once made a better pot holder in Home Ec. Doris Horton Thurston, my seventy-five year old grandmother, has always had a song in her heart and on the edge of her tongue, waiting to flow over in a cascade of expression. She sees music as a connection to the world, a form that lets her reach outside of everyday life to different people, different cultures and different times. From generations before her and for generations to follow, from the memory of her mother's piano playing and her father's voice as a child to the orchestra concerts of her youngest grandchildren, she holds the connection to music close to her heart. Her childhood was one of family hikes and plum trees and dipping fish out of the Lewis River when the smelt run came through. It was filled with holiday candles on the Christmas tree, carved cribbage boards and two younger brothers. In high school she ran track and played clarinet in Mr. Griffith's band. She danced to We Three are All Alone and Carolina Moon on the gym floor of Woodland High School. Throughout it all she pursued her love of music: chorus, octet and solo performances, piano lessons and family singing around the piano. She worked alongside her Mother, Dad and brothers, Troy and Dane, in the neatly tended and carefully guarded rows of the family garden. She hummed the lilting notes of an Ave Maria aria or the harmony line to My Wild Irish Rose, which she somehow heard in her head when her father's rich baritone caressed the melody and her mothers fingers danced on the piano keys. She hoped the vegetables they were tending could be sold to earn a little extra for the next month of piano lessons. Despite the never-ending presence of the depression throughout the thirties, she was never hungry or cold.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Should Tourism Be Allowed in Antartica

Should Tourism be allowed in Antarctica? There is no doubt Antarctica is an incredible tourist destination. Visitor numbers have increased rapidly over the last few decades. During 1998-99, in the summer season, over 10,000 tourists visited Antarctica, compared with less than 2000, 19 years ago. This is not necessarily a good thing; what about all of the pollution people cause whilst travelling to Antarctica? This brings us to the question: Should Tourism be allowed in Antarctica?Some people think that tourism should be allowed in Antarctica. They think that people need to be educated about how Antarctica an extreme environment and climate. They think that we need to know what we are doing to the Earth; such as, we are spoiling their habitat by global warming because we are creating too much pollution, therefore creating the green house effect. It could be argued that because Antarctica is such a remote place we need to experience the different cultures, wild life and scenery.They al so believe that Antarctica has a magnificent wilderness with majestic mountains, glaciers, icebergs and abundant wildlife. Its remoteness, inaccessibility and severe climate add an element of adventure to a visit to Antarctica. On the other hand scientists want to go to Antarctica to find out so much more about it. They also carry out the kind of science in Antarctica, that cannot be done any were in the world; they also contribute to solving a global problem.Other people think that tourism should not be allowed in Antarctica because people Might introduce germs and diseases because when people don’t clean their boots they will get muddy and will pollute the water. When people are sick and they go too close to the animals they will give the diseases to them and the animals won’t survive. Also when humans are taken to Antarctica they might harm the animals there, for instance they will leave rubbish in animal habitats. They also might scare the animals with flash photog raphy.They also believe that people might trample penguins breeding areas therefore the number of penguins will go down and eventually the penguins will turn extinct. There are many worries about pollution in Antarctica as well. In the Gulf of Mexico there has been a huge oil spill in the ocean, what if that happened to Antarctica? All of the animals would die, if they keep drinking from the water. In approximately 10 years there will be a huge rubbish dump, because we are leaving too much rubbish in Antarctica. Although tour boats may give people more jobs they are leaving oo much waste in its path. Human Waste and leftover food scraps are usually thrown over the side of boats during tours. This is dangerous for the animals because they might eat it and they would most probably die. To conclude, I think that tourism should not be allowed in Antarctica unless they are scientist and going to preserve the content or to do research on Antarctica; but there has to be rule that you have to get permission from the government and you have to be based a certain amount of distance away from the animals main habitat.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Chinas Physical Geography - A Diverse Landscape

Chinas Physical Geography - A Diverse Landscape Sitting on the Pacific Rim at 35 degrees North and 105 degrees East is the People’s Republic of China. Along with Japan and Korea, China is often considered part of Northeast Asia as it borders North Korea and shares a maritime border with Japan. But the country also shares land borders with 13 other nations in Central, South and Southeast Asia – including Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Vietnam. With 3.7 million square miles (9.6 square km) of terrain, China’s landscape is diverse and expansive. Hainan Province, China’s southernmost region is in the tropics, while Heilongjiang Province which borders Russia, can dip to below freezing. There are also the western desert and plateau regions of Xinjiang and Tibet, and to the north lies the vast grasslands of Inner Mongolia. Just about every physical landscape can be found in China. Mountains and Rivers Major mountain ranges in China include the Himalayas along the India and Nepal border, the Kunlun Mountains in the center-west region, the Tianshan Mountains in the northwest Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the Qinling Mountains that separates north and south China, the Greater Hinggan Mountains in the northeast, the Tiahang Mountains in north-central China, and the Hengduan Mountains in the southeast where Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan meet. The rivers in China include the 4,000-mile (6,300 km) Yangzi River, also known as the Changjiang or the Yangtze, that begins in Tibet and cuts trough the middle of the country, before emptying into the East China Sea near Shanghai. It is the third longest river in the world after the Amazon and the Nile. The 1,200-mile (1900 km) Huanghe or Yellow River begins in the western Qinghai Province and travels a meandering route through North China to the Bohai Sea in Shangdong Province. The Heilongjiang or Black Dragon River runs along the Northeast marking China’s border with Russia. Southern China has the Zhujiang or Pearl River whose tributaries make a delta emptying into the South China Sea near Hong Kong. A Difficult Land While China is the fourth largest country in the world, behind Russia, Canada, and the United States in terms of landmass, only about 15 percent of it is arable, as most of the country is made of mountains, hills, and highlands. Throughout history, this has proven a challenge to grow enough food to feed Chinas large population. Farmers have practiced intensive agriculture methods, some of which have led to a great erosion of its mountains. For centuries China has also struggled with earthquakes, droughts, floods, typhoons, tsunamis, and sandstorms. It is no surprise then that much of Chinese development has been shaped by the land. Because so much of western China is not as fertile as other regions, most of the population lives in the eastern third of the country. This has resulted in uneven development where eastern cities are heavily populated and more industrial and commercial while the western regions are less populated and have little industry. Located on the Pacific Rim, Chinas earthquakes have been severe. The 1976 Tangshan earthquake in northeast China is said to have killed more than 200,000 people. In May 2008, an earthquake in southwestern Sichuan province killed nearly 87,000 people and left millions homeless. While the nation is just a bit smaller than the United States, China uses only one time zone, China Standard Time, which is eight hours ahead of GMT. A Poem About Chinas Land: At Heron Lodge For centuries the diverse landscape of China has inspired artists and poets. Tang Dynasty poet Wang Zhihuan’s (688-742) poem â€Å"At Heron Lodge† romanticizes the land, and also shows an appreciation of perspective: Mountains cover the white sun And oceans drain the yellow river But you can widen your view three hundred miles By ascending a single flight of stairs

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Johannes Gutenberg, Inventor of the Printing Press

Johannes Gutenberg, Inventor of the Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg (c. 1398–February 3, 1468) was the inventor of a movable-type printing press, based on a Rhenish wine press and using ink that clung to the metal type and produced color fonts. His technological innovations, which included punch-cutting, matrix-fitting, type-casting, composing, and printing, was used nearly unchanged for three centuries after his death.   Fast Facts: Johannes Gutenberg Known For: Invention of several technologies surrounding the printing pressBorn: c. 1394–1404 in Mainz, GermanyParents: Friele Gensfleisch and Else WirichDied: February 3, 1468 in Mainz, GermanyEducation: Apprentice to a goldsmith, possibly enrolled at the University of ErfurtPublished Works: 42-Line Bible (The Gutenberg Bible), a Book of Psalter, and the  Sibyls ProphecySpouse(s): None knownChildren: None known Early Life Johannes Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg was born between 1394 and 1404 in Mainz, in what is today Germany. An official birthday of June 24, 1400, was chosen at the time of a 500th Anniversary Festival held in Mainz in 1900, but that is symbolic. What information about his early life is limited to court documents- and sources are limited in usefulness because his surname, like many people of the time, was a reference to the building or property he lived in, and so changed according to his residence.  As a young child and adult, he lived in the Gutenberg house in Mainz. Johannes was the second of three children of Friele Gensfleisch and Else Wirich. Else Wirich was the daughter of a shopkeeper, whose family had once been of the noble classes. Friele Gensfleisch was a member of the aristocracy and worked in the ecclesiastical mint, the place that supplied gold and other metals for coins, minted the coins, changed the species of coins when needed, and testified in forgery cases. Education Johannes worked with his father in the mint, which is where he learned and may have been a goldsmiths apprentice. As a young man, he may have also worked in the clothing trade in Mainz until 1411, when a craftsmans revolt against the noble classes occurred, and Johann and his family were forced to flee Mainz. They may have gone to Eltville am Rhein, where his mother had an inherited estate. In 1418, a student named Johannes de Altavilla enrolled at the University of Erfurt- Altavilla is the Latin form of Eltville am Rhein.  By 1434, they were in Strasbourg. Wherever he was educated, Johannes learned reading and writing in German and Latin, the language of scholars and churchmen. Books have been around for nearly 3,000 years, but until Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in the mid-1400s they were rare and hard to produce. Text and illustrations were done by hand, a very time-consuming process, and only the wealthy and educated could afford them. But within a few decades of Gutenbergs innovation, printing presses were operating in England, France, Germany, Holland, Spain, and elsewhere. More presses meant more (and cheaper) books, allowing literacy to flourish across Europe.   Books Before Gutenberg British Library / Wikimedia Commons / CC0 Although historians cant pinpoint when the first book was created, the oldest known book in existence was printed in China in 868 CE. Called The Diamond Sutra, it was a copy of a sacred Buddhist text, in a 17-foot-long scroll printed with wooden blocks. It was commissioned by a man named  Wang Jie to honor his parents, according to an inscription on the scroll, though little else is known about who Wang was or who created the scroll. Today, it is in the collection of the British Museum in London. By 932 CE, Chinese printers regularly were using carved wooden blocks to print scrolls. But these wooden blocks wore out quickly, and a new block had to be carved for each character, word, or image that was used. The next revolution in printing occurred in 1041 when Chinese printers began using movable type, individual characters made of clay that could be chained together to form words and sentences. Printing Comes to Europe By the early 1400s, European metalsmiths also had adopted wood-block printing and engraving. One of those metalsmiths was Johannes Gutenberg, who began experimenting with printing work during his exile in Strasbourg- at the time, there were metalsmiths in Avignon, Bruges, and Bologna who were also experimenting with presses. By 1438, Gutenberg had begun experimenting with printing techniques using metal movable type and had secured funding from a wealthy businessman named  Andreas Dritzehn; between 1444 and 1448 he returned to Mainz. An illustration of Gutenbergs printing press. ilbusca / Getty Images It is unclear when Gutenberg began publishing with his metal type, but by 1450 he had made sufficient progress to seek additional funds from another investor,  Johannes Fust. Using a modified wine press, Gutenberg  created his printing press. The ink was rolled over the raised surfaces of movable handset block letters held within a wooden form, and the form was then pressed against a sheet of paper. Gutenbergs Bible A copy of Gutenbergs Bible. NYC Wanderer / Kevin Eng / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 2.0 By 1452, Gutenberg entered into a business partnership with Fust in order to continue funding his printing experiments. Gutenberg continued to refine his printing process and by 1455 had printed several copies of the Bible. Consisting of three volumes of text in Latin, Gutenbergs Bibles had 42 lines of type per page with color illustrations. But Gutenberg didnt enjoy his innovation for long. Fust sued him for repayment, something Gutenberg was unable to do, and Fust seized the press as collateral. The bulk of Gutenbergs presses and types went to Peter Schà ¶ffer of Gernsheim, an employee and later son-in-law of Fust.  Fust continued printing the Bibles, eventually publishing about 200 copies, of which only 22 exist today. In addition to the 42-Line Bible, Gutenberg is credited by some historians with a Book of Psalter, published by Fust and Schà ¶ffer but using fonts and innovative techniques generally attributed to Gutenberg. The oldest surviving manuscript from the early Gutenburg press is that of a fragment of the poem The Sibyls Prophecy, the German text of which was made using Gutenbergs earliest typeface between 1452–1453. The page, which includes a planetary table for astrologers, was found in the late 19th century and donated to the Gutenberg museum in 1903. Legacy and Death Few details are known about Gutenbergs life after the lawsuit. According to some historians, Gutenberg continued to work with Fust, while other scholars say Fust drove Gutenberg out of business. After 1460, he seems to have abandoned printing entirely, perhaps as a result of blindness. He survived on a pension from the archbishop of Mainz known as a Hoffman, a gentleman of the court. Gutenberg died on February 3, 1468, and was buried in a Franciscan church in Eltville, Germany that was torn down in 1742. Sources Daley, Jason. Five Things to Know About the Diamond Sutra, the World’s Oldest Dated Printed Book. Smithsonian Magazine. 11 May 2016.Garner, April, project coordinator.  Teaching Gutenberg. Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin. Accessed 6 March 2018.Green, Jonathan. Printing and Prophecy: Prognostication and Media Change 1450–1550. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.Kapr, Albert. Johann Gutenberg: The Man and his Invention. Trans. Martin, Douglas. Scolar Press, 1996.Man, John. The Gutenberg Revolution: How Printing Changed the Course of History. London: Bantam Books, 2009.  Steinberg, S. H. Five Hundred Years of Printing. New York: Dover Publications, 2017.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Participation in the political process Research Paper

Participation in the political process - Research Paper Example Federal government. All states elect state Governors to represent and lead their states. However the powers, privilege, and policy-making allowance of any Governor differs from state to state. For example, the state of Texas Governor’s role is a bit different from the majority of other states. Interestingly enough, the Texas Governorship, rather the territory that would one day be called the state of Texas, has existed longer than the office than the President of the United States (Maddex, 2006). From 1836-1845 the position of Governor was titled the President of the Lone Star Republican prior to the unionization of the state. The present Constitution defines the position of Governor as the Executive power of Texas Governors; however there are limitations to that power. There is a â€Å"pluralism† of the executive powers, which disperses the overall control among a number of elected to boards and committees (Texas State Historical Association, 2014). This decentralization of power is unique and needed. For this reason Texas government, specifically, limited the powers of any individual Governor to prevent any repetition of the past (Maddex, 2006). In order to become a Texas Governor the candidate must be, at least, 30 years old and be a resident of the state for no less than 5 years. The elected Governor is responsible for commanding the military, appointing heads of state agencies, handling states funds and taxes, and can propose bills and has the right to veto those bills presented by others (Texas State Historical Association, 2014).At one time, the Governor was exclusively in control of pardoning of prisoners. However these powers have, also, been limited. In 1929 the state created the Board of Pardons and Paroles, which would be the primary office In charge of prisoner pardons, the Governor is only allowed to act under the advisement of the Board. The Governor

Friday, November 1, 2019

Pro Life Campaign Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Pro Life Campaign - Research Paper Example The group has had both moral as well as sectarian grounds to defend their stand and in most cases have even moved to court to oppose the legalization of abortion. The group argues that life begins at conception and any person who knowingly removes life should be punishable by law. They also argue that hospitals should not be allowed to perform this controversial procedure. This group does change their stand only on any grounds of incest, rape or situations when the mother’s life is at risk (Derr, 2005). Tactics The major tactics of pro-life is ultrasound legislation. This is where the group uses words to guilt mothers from taking an abortion. In most cases, the mothers feel the guilt and end up not doing the abortion but after some period of time, the same mothers come back for this procedure. This strategy even though has had some of its positive impacts; in most cases it has only been successful for some periods of time. The group also uses biblical statements to make their stands arguing that God does not promote abortion. This only works out for the few people who are religious and believe in God. However, there are people who have no religious beliefs and so they always go ahead and perform the procedure. As a result of this, the pro life organizers have been able to go to court to help convince the legislators to stop this inhumane act and in some states; this has been a success with most of the states accepting to illegalize this act only allowing it in certain circumstances (Prolife Alliance, 2007). The other tactic that the group is using is education. The group realized that responsibility can only be instilled through proper education into the minds of people. They do this by talking to teenagers and adults separately about the responsibility that comes with sexuality. They also advice women on safe sex and encourage them to always learn that abortion is never the only option that is available. The group always teaches the girls on other optio ns that are available for the baby in case they don’t want the baby. They can always think of other ideas such as foster care that provides care to children who are neglected. In most cases, this strategy has been very beneficial and most of the women have had to change their minds on abortion and have opted for other available options. In most cases, the government has also moved in to support this course of action since abortion has become a national issue and with women demanding for their rights, it has been a challenge convincing them against this action. Education strategies have therefore helped a lot (Alcorn, 2002). The other major strategy that the group uses is the shock and awe strategy. This is where they present pictures of dead infants and other disgusting images that make the public see the real truth in abortion. This has greatly touched many mothers and as a result, they have opted for other options other than abortion. This technique has been successful espe cially with commercial sex workers who are one of the largest populations that have abortion every year. Most Americans support prolife activities mainly because of this technique. The technique has not only touched the mothers but the general public as well. This has drawn debates and other public awareness campaigns to make abortion illegal and to educate girls and anyone affected on alternative methods (Alcorn, 2004). Legality Though pro life organizers have been met with different legal challenges, the movement is completely legal and its mission and vision have no illegal intention in them. However, the group has received a lot of threats from various groups. Many of the anti pro-choice organizers have moved to