Friday, May 31, 2019
A Streetcar Named Desire as Tragic Comedy Tennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desire is considered by many critics to be a blemished masterpiece. This is because Williams establish utilizes and wonderfully blends both tragic and derisory elements that come to shroud the true nature of the hero and heroine, thereby not allowing the reader to essay them on solid actuality. Hence, Williams has been compared to writers such as Shakespeare who, in literature, have created a sense of ambiguity and uncertainty in finding a sole study or aspect in their works. Because of the highly tragic elements encountered in Streetcar, many immediately label it a tragedy. Nevertheless, the immense comical circumstances encountered in the touch contradict the sole role of tragedy and leave the reader pondering the true nature of the work, the question being whether it is a tragedy with accidental comic incidences or a comedy with weak melodramatic occurrences. It has been said that the double ma sk of tragicomedy reveals the polarity of the human condition(Adler 47). The contrariety of forces in the work serves to enforce a sense of both reality and drama that are present in everyday human life. The comic elements in the play serve as a form of determined self-preservation just as the tragic elements add to the notion of self-destruction. This is the true nature of a tragicomedy. By juxtaposing two contradictory positions, ambiguity is averd in the judgment of the main characters, most notably Stanley Kowalski and Blanche Dubois (Riddell 83). Ambivalence in the play is largely caused by the relationship between Stanley and Blanche. They concurrently produce both appalling and appealing tendencies. Both characters display elements o... ...ilable forces come face to face. The two opposing forces are destined to become locked in a wipeout grip and society will be the loser. Works Cited Adler, Thomas P. A Streetcar Named Desire The Moth and the Lantern. cutting York Tway ne, 1990. Baym, Nina et al, eds. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New York WW Norton & Co., 1995. Falk, Signi. Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Streetcar Named Desire. Ed. Jordan Miller. New Jersey Prentice-Hall, 1971. Riddell, Joseph. Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Streetcar Named Desire. Ed. Jordan Miller. New Jersey Prentice-Hall, 1971. Szeliski, John T. von. Twentieth Century Interpretations of A Streetcar Named Desire. Ed. Jordan Miller. New Jersey Prentice-Hall, 1971. Williams, Tennessee. The Theatre of Tennessee Williams. New York New Directions, 1971.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Christian Humanism Christian humanism was the humanists efforts to unite classical learning with the Christian faith. The Christian humanists rejected what they regarded as gothic Christianitys profuse emphasis on other worldliness. They desired to bring their acquaintance of the classical languages to bear in their effort to attain a deeper knowledge and understanding of the Christian faith. Christian humanism was properly nothing but a reclaiming of the basic inheritance of history and the natural connection of culture with the phantasmal vistas of the human being. Desiderius Erasmus was likely one of the biggest and most outstanding of the Christian humanists. He was cognize as the Prince of the Humanists. He mostly devoted his life to classical studies. His Adages, a collection of Latin proverbs, established his scholarly reputation. Most of his other early works attacked corrupt church practices and the scholasticism developed by churchmen. In the sycophancy of Folly, hi s most famed work, make fun of many attitudes of his time which were ignorance , superstition , and greed. Another big time humanist was Thomas More. An English statesman and writer, known for his religious place against King Henry VIII costed him his life. He was Englands greatest humanist. Mores most famous work Utopia described an ensample world where corporation was based on reason and ignorance. The citizens practiced a Christianity that was free of ignorance and superstition. There was no private property and no desire for earnings and there was no war except in self-defense. More contrasted this society with the evils existing in his own society. These Christian humanists had similar characteristics and helped Martin Luther in his reformation process. They some(prenominal) wanted colossal reform in the Roman Catholic Church. In Erasmuss Colloquia his continuing assaults on the evils and errors of the church authorities and on superstition made him vulnerable to the th rill that he was a Lutheran. They both used and emphasized on scripture. Even though Erasmus denied being a Lutheran and at generation even ver evening gowny attacked Luther, he is often regarded as a precursor of the Reformation. The humanists work in translating and analyzing original sources often uncovered discrepancies among these sources, which led to questions about the Catholic Churchs practices and encouraged efforts for reform. Erasmus got this ball rolling and Luther just blew it up. There was just one difference between Erasmus and Luther. Christian humanists believed strongly in the unity of the church and the deliverance of a Christian Humanism essays research papers Christian Humanism Christian humanism was the humanists efforts to unite classical learning with the Christian faith. The Christian humanists rejected what they regarded as medieval Christianitys excessive emphasis on other worldliness. They desired to bring their knowledge of the classical languages to bear in their effort to attain a deeper knowledge and understanding of the Christian faith. Christian humanism was properly nothing but a reclaiming of the basic inheritance of history and the natural connection of culture with the religious vistas of the human being. Desiderius Erasmus was probably one of the biggest and most outstanding of the Christian humanists. He was known as the Prince of the Humanists. He mostly devoted his life to classical studies. His Adages, a collection of Latin proverbs, established his scholarly reputation. Most of his other early works attacked corrupt church practices and the scholasticism developed by churchmen. In the Praise of Folly, his most famous work, made fun of many attitudes of his time which were ignorance , superstition , and greed. Another big time humanist was Thomas More. An English statesman and writer, known for his religious stance against King Henry VIII costed him his life. He was Englands greatest humanist. Mores most famous work Utopia described an ideal world where society was based on reason and ignorance. The citizens practiced a Christianity that was free of ignorance and superstition. There was no private property and no desire for profit and there was no war except in self-defense. More contrasted this society with the evils existing in his own society. These Christian humanists had similar characteristics and helped Martin Luther in his reformation process. They both wanted huge reform in the Roman Catholic Church. In Erasmuss Colloquia his continuing assaults on the evils and errors of the church authorities and on superstition made him vulnerable to the accusation that he was a Lutheran. They both used and emphasized on scripture. Even though Erasmus denied being a Lutheran and at times even verbally attacked Luther, he is often regarded as a precursor of the Reformation. The humanists work in translating and analyzing original sources often uncovered discrepancies among these sources, which l ed to questions about the Catholic Churchs practices and encouraged efforts for reform. Erasmus got this ball rolling and Luther just blew it up. There was just one difference between Erasmus and Luther. Christian humanists believed strongly in the unity of the church and the preservation of a
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
1.In my book Heaven, the main character Heaven Leigh Casteel would most think of her teacher Miss Deale to be a hero. This is because Heaven could not grant books or T.V. as a matter of fact, the only time she even got to see the real world was when she went to school. Miss Deale was a kind lady who helped slight fortunate children survive by offering them monetary gifts even when she was struggling herself. This characteristic was important to Heaven because she was one of those struggling families, and she always dreamed of developing up and having money of her own one day to help others. Yet the characteristic that Heaven most desired from Miss Deale was her beauty at an oldish age. The second character Logan would most consider the American Man to be his super hero. This is because the American Man goes around doing good will to those who are little fortunate. Logan sees that Heavens family is in a desperate situation, and he struggles to help her out the best way he disce rns how. The trait of the American Man that he would most want is the ability to create money.2.From the Lutheran Churchs point of view, we would totally disagree with the actions of just about everyone in the book. Heavens father was a total whore who never spent time at home with his family. Of course this goes against the Bible teachings about solidarity to ones spouse. As far as Heaven, the Lutheran Church would commend her on being there for her family. Yet when it comes to her later attained drinking and smoking habits, it is totally prohibited. This is because we know that God teaches us that we are not to harm our bodies while we are on this earth.
Humorous Wedding Speech for a Groom in SalesGood evening Ladies and Gentlemen - Today, Id like to take this opportunity to pay tribute to a man who personifies intelligence, ambition, tact, generosity, and integrity. scarce it is Johns wedding so its only fair that I talk about him as well. LaughterNow, I only met John a few years ago at university, meaning that Ive had to rely on him perhaps more than I would have liked to get the details of his past. But apparently, the young John Cervoni was an exceptionally gifted child. After publishing his first novel at 15, John tells me that his English teacher was left in tears when he opted for the Sciences at A Level. He then reluctantly turned down offers from Harvard and Stanford, in order to study at that other great beacon of learning State University. But between leaving school and going to State, where I met John, I can only assume that something far too terrible to enquire about moldiness have happened to transform him into the me diocre bum that I know. While at State U. John spent so much time skipping lectures they almost changed his peak to home economics. And when he left, his head of department gave him this reference Any company who gets Mr. Cervoni to work for them will be very lucky indeed. So non surprisingly, John has done absolutely nothing to help with the planning of this wedding. At one stage, Melissa got so desperate for help she had me search him for a socket. She wondered if mayhap she had to plug him in. Believe it or not, I wasnt Johns only friend at university. LaughterJohn developed a tight relationship with an African exchange student, named Chimaka. Their relationship was close in the sense that John admired Chimakas essay writing abilities and John was kindly evermore on hand to help Chimaka tidy up his written English. Now Chimaka, whos father was a tribal elder in Chimakaya and whos resolution had donated money to send Chimaka to England, was rather shocked to find himself cal led into the Dean of Faculties office one morning to explain similarities in his essay to those of John. Two hours later, finding Chimaka on his doorstep threatening suicide, or murder, Johns future skills as a salesman came into play. Quoting statistical probability, quantum mechanics and astrology with a straight face, John managed to save both university careers.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Gender Relations refers to the power relations between work force and wo manpower. Under patriarchal society, men and women do not stand on an equal ground, men shows superiority and women have lower status than men. Under patriarchal values, men possess higher(prenominal) status and act a dominant role, women are obliged to live according to their gendered roles, to be submissive. This notion of gender relations is like a culture, it affects how men and women interact and perceive one another, it also propagates though interactions between men and women. The imbalanced power relations between men and women can be constitute in a lot of Western and Chinese writings. A Dolls House is a play written by Henrik Ibsen. In A Dolls House, Henirk Ibsen presents the female person protagonist, Nora, as a conventional woman living in a patriarchal society. Nora had to follow the rules and customs. She always had to mask her original traits in front of her husband. Through the interaction betw een Nora and Torvald, the imbalanced power relations between men and women is shown. Torvald had more rights than Nora, and he just treated Nora as a possession of him. For Nora, she had to mask her ego to accommodate to the patriarchal society. Finally she transformed into a New Women, break through with(predicate) the patriarchal values and leave the confinement to face for her self. Through A Dolls House, Ibsen criticizes the patriarchal values that society accepts. For How Did I Miss You, Zhang Xinxin presents the imbalanced power relations between men and women through the nameless female protagonist and male protagonist. They both symbolize the many men and women who lived in China during the Cultural Revolution. In the story, the female protagonist try hard to pursue equal status wit... ...ates to men. To become an real individual, a woman has to leave her gendered role and seek her own life. It would be a demanding time for women. Henrik Ibsen thus reminds society of the imbalanced power relations and society should solve the problem. For How Did I Miss You, Zhang Xinxin presents the imbalance of power between female and male sex in China. The female protagonist acts as a mirror of millions of female in China. She suffers due to her unconventional traits and through How Did I Miss You, Zhang Xinxin depicts the unvoiced process of a woman to pursue an equal status with men.Works CitedHenrik Ibsen. Four Major Plays. Trans. James McFarlane and Jens Arup. Oxford Oxford UP, 1981.Tam, K.K., Yip, Terry S.H., and Dissanayake, Wmal, eds. A place of ones own stories of self in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. New York Oxford UP, 1999.
Gender Relations refers to the situation relations amid men and women. Under aged society, men and women do not stand on an get even ground, men shows superiority and women have lower status than men. Under remote values, men possess higher status and act a dominant role, women argon obliged to live according to their gendered roles, to be submissive. This notion of gender relations is like a culture, it affects how men and women interact and perceive one another, it also propagates though interactions between men and women. The imbalanced power relations between men and women can be found in a lot of Western and Chinese writings. A Dolls House is a play written by Henrik Ibsen. In A Dolls House, Henirk Ibsen presents the female protagonist, Nora, as a conventional woman living in a patriarchal society. Nora had to follow the rules and customs. She always had to mask her unconventional traits in front of her husband. Through the interaction between Nora and Torvald, the imbalanc ed power relations between men and women is shown. Torvald had more rights than Nora, and he just treated Nora as a possession of him. For Nora, she had to mask herself to accommodate to the patriarchal society. Finally she transformed into a New Women, breakthrough the patriarchal values and leave the confinement to search for her self. Through A Dolls House, Ibsen criticizes the patriarchal values that society accepts. For How Did I Miss You, Zhang Xinxin presents the imbalanced power relations between men and women through the nameless female protagonist and male protagonist. They twain symbolize the many men and women who lived in China during the Cultural Revolution. In the story, the female protagonist tried hard to pursue come to status wit... ...ates to men. To wrench an real individual, a woman has to leave her gendered role and seek her own life. It would be a difficult time for women. Henrik Ibsen thus reminds society of the imbalanced power relations and society shou ld solve the problem. For How Did I Miss You, Zhang Xinxin presents the imbalance of power between female and male sex in China. The female protagonist acts as a mirror of millions of female in China. She suffers due to her unconventional traits and through How Did I Miss You, Zhang Xinxin depicts the difficult process of a woman to pursue an equal status with men.Works CitedHenrik Ibsen. Four Major Plays. Trans. James McFarlane and Jens Arup. Oxford Oxford UP, 1981.Tam, K.K., Yip, Terry S.H., and Dissanayake, Wmal, eds. A place of ones own stories of self in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. New York Oxford UP, 1999.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Family set with the Cosby Show Growing up in the mid 1980s I can remember watching the Cosby Show. My family and I fell in fare with the Huxt adequate to(p) family. The state was funny, witty, and dealt with serious issues at some times. It was also the first appearance that portrayed a black family living a successful center(a) contraryiate feel style. The attests concepts were in truth unusual to me, because around that time we thought America dealt with majority Caucasian problems and depicts.Growing up in a impaired property in which my m other was incessantly under lots of stress and my father was to drunk to care about how we live our lives it was just a no- right-hand(a) feature of family life at that time. At the time it didnt seem worry it was a inquisitive air to live. That is until I discovered a different facial expression of family life and value. The family values displayed in the Cosby show were things that I had never seen before. It was a complete s hock to my young mind to say the least. Mr. and Mrs.Huxt qualified were the saint parents. They displayed truehearted honourable values, they also moved themselves in their childrens lives as loving guides, and they taught their children the value of how grave it was to have an education. Despite all of these positive aspects environ their children they were hitherto able to remain happily married. My siblings and I had a wonderful mother. Yet our family had a lack of morals and values that would serve to inspire us to do something with our lives.Morals and values were those key components that the Huxtables were so good at portraying to there children. As a family we never felt that we werent loved. My mother was always very good at teaching us how to look out for one another. I can remember that that was one of the few good aspects from the show that I was able to identify with. The Huxtables always seemed to have a form of togetherness. They were good at relying on one ano ther. Their parents made sure to keep the children away(predicate) from bad influences like medicates and violence.They instilled inside their kids those good morals and values that would help them to become good adults. Besides being loving parents Cliff and Clair Huxtable were friends to there children and therefore enabled them to be enate guides when problems would arise. I think that it was that friendship that allowed for their children to open up and share there problems with them. This was the exact opposite of what it was like for my siblings and me. My mother didnt involve herself in our everyday lives causing me, in part, to become rebellious and secretive.My mother and father never finished high school. So I think that to them it wasnt that important for us to do so ether. On the Cosby show both parents were college grads and both were successful in there career fields. I noticed that in the show it was judge of the children to go to a university. I know that not f inishing high school and going to college may sound strange to you the reviewer flop now, exactly due to were and when I grew up it was perfectly normal to be a drop out.Growing up in a poverty in love drug and intoxicant centered environment it would have been so easy for me to end up in a gang, or in prison, or mayhap until now dead. I believe that there are a number of positive factors that kept my family and me from suffering unfortunate events. Mainly it was our obedience and faith in the shaper rescuer Christ. I also believe that God has many a(prenominal) different ways to speak to us. He is constantly throwing us life preservers, exactly it is up to us rather we grab hold to them or not.At a young an impressionable age I stumbled across a television show that would at long last dislodge and challenge my way of thinking. I learn examples of what it would mean to be a good father, why it was beneficial to go to college, and I larn what I cherished my personal fami ly to be like. The Cosby show was definitely a grate show. The show was a pioneer in its time leading the way for many other shows like it. That family taught me life lessons that I will never forget. It was a very positive show that I enjoyed and thats stayed with me even until this day.Family setFamily Values with the Cosby Show Growing up in the mid 1980s I can remember watching the Cosby Show. My family and I fell in love with the Huxtable family. The show was funny, witty, and dealt with serious issues at some times. It was also the first show that portrayed a black family living a successful middle class life style. The shows concepts were very unusual to me, because around that time we thought America dealt with majority Caucasian problems and shows.Growing up in a dysfunctional home in which my mother was always under lots of stress and my father was to drunk to care about how we live our lives it was just a sad fact of family life at that time. At the time it didnt seem li ke it was a bad way to live. That is until I discovered a different aspect of family life and values. The family values displayed in the Cosby show were things that I had never seen before. It was a complete shock to my young mind to say the least. Mr. and Mrs.Huxtable were the ideal parents. They displayed strong moral values, they also involved themselves in their childrens lives as loving guides, and they taught their children the value of how important it was to have an education. Despite all of these positive aspects surrounding their children they were still able to remain happily married. My siblings and I had a wonderful mother. Yet our family had a lack of morals and values that would serve to inspire us to do something with our lives.Morals and values were those key components that the Huxtables were so good at portraying to there children. As a family we never felt that we werent loved. My mother was always very good at teaching us how to look out for one another. I can r emember that that was one of the few good aspects from the show that I was able to identify with. The Huxtables always seemed to have a form of togetherness. They were good at relying on one another. Their parents made sure to keep the children away from bad influences like drugs and violence.They instilled inside their kids those good morals and values that would help them to become good adults. Besides being loving parents Cliff and Clair Huxtable were friends to there children and thus enabled them to be parental guides when problems would arise. I think that it was that friendship that allowed for their children to open up and share there problems with them. This was the exact opposite of what it was like for my siblings and me. My mother didnt involve herself in our daily lives causing me, in part, to become rebellious and secretive.My mother and father never finished high school. So I think that to them it wasnt that important for us to do so ether. On the Cosby show both pare nts were college grads and both were successful in there career fields. I noticed that in the show it was expected of the children to go to a university. I know that not finishing high school and going to college may sound strange to you the reader right now, but due to were and when I grew up it was perfectly normal to be a drop out.Growing up in a poverty stricken drug and alcohol centered environment it would have been so easy for me to end up in a gang, or in prison, or maybe even dead. I believe that there are a number of positive factors that kept my family and me from suffering unfortunate events. Mainly it was our obedience and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. I also believe that God has many different ways to speak to us. He is constantly throwing us life preservers, but it is up to us rather we grab hold to them or not.At a young an impressionable age I stumbled across a television show that would eventually change and challenge my way of thinking. I learn examples of what it would mean to be a good father, why it was beneficial to go to college, and I learned what I wanted my personal family to be like. The Cosby show was definitely a grate show. The show was a pioneer in its time leading the way for many other shows like it. That family taught me life lessons that I will never forget. It was a very positive show that I enjoyed and thats stayed with me even until this day.Family ValuesFamily Values with the Cosby Show Growing up in the mid 1980s I can remember watching the Cosby Show. My family and I fell in love with the Huxtable family. The show was funny, witty, and dealt with serious issues at some times. It was also the first show that portrayed a black family living a successful middle class life style. The shows concepts were very unusual to me, because around that time we thought America dealt with majority Caucasian problems and shows.Growing up in a dysfunctional home in which my mother was always under lots of stress and my father was to d runk to care about how we live our lives it was just a sad fact of family life at that time. At the time it didnt seem like it was a bad way to live. That is until I discovered a different aspect of family life and values. The family values displayed in the Cosby show were things that I had never seen before. It was a complete shock to my young mind to say the least. Mr. and Mrs.Huxtable were the ideal parents. They displayed strong moral values, they also involved themselves in their childrens lives as loving guides, and they taught their children the value of how important it was to have an education. Despite all of these positive aspects surrounding their children they were still able to remain happily married. My siblings and I had a wonderful mother. Yet our family had a lack of morals and values that would serve to inspire us to do something with our lives.Morals and values were those key components that the Huxtables were so good at portraying to there children. As a family w e never felt that we werent loved. My mother was always very good at teaching us how to look out for one another. I can remember that that was one of the few good aspects from the show that I was able to identify with. The Huxtables always seemed to have a form of togetherness. They were good at relying on one another. Their parents made sure to keep the children away from bad influences like drugs and violence.They instilled inside their kids those good morals and values that would help them to become good adults. Besides being loving parents Cliff and Clair Huxtable were friends to there children and thus enabled them to be parental guides when problems would arise. I think that it was that friendship that allowed for their children to open up and share there problems with them. This was the exact opposite of what it was like for my siblings and me. My mother didnt involve herself in our daily lives causing me, in part, to become rebellious and secretive.My mother and father never finished high school. So I think that to them it wasnt that important for us to do so ether. On the Cosby show both parents were college grads and both were successful in there career fields. I noticed that in the show it was expected of the children to go to a university. I know that not finishing high school and going to college may sound strange to you the reader right now, but due to were and when I grew up it was perfectly normal to be a drop out.Growing up in a poverty stricken drug and alcohol centered environment it would have been so easy for me to end up in a gang, or in prison, or maybe even dead. I believe that there are a number of positive factors that kept my family and me from suffering unfortunate events. Mainly it was our obedience and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. I also believe that God has many different ways to speak to us. He is constantly throwing us life preservers, but it is up to us rather we grab hold to them or not.At a young an impressionable age I s tumbled across a television show that would eventually change and challenge my way of thinking. I learn examples of what it would mean to be a good father, why it was beneficial to go to college, and I learned what I wanted my personal family to be like. The Cosby show was definitely a grate show. The show was a pioneer in its time leading the way for many other shows like it. That family taught me life lessons that I will never forget. It was a very positive show that I enjoyed and thats stayed with me even until this day.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Marx believed that capitalist miserliness was doomed, and he develop an intricate analysis of the law of motion of capitalist society to analyse it (Fusfeld 2002, p 50). At one level his argument had a moral basis. He argued that the inherent injustices of capitalism lead ultimately to social and frugal conditions, which open firenot be maintained (Fusfeld 2002, p 50). On another level his argument is sociological class conflict- between a decreasing number of increasingly wealthy capitalists and a suppuration and increasingly miserable working class- will lead ultimately to a social revolution (Fusfeld 2002, p 50).To conclude his Final argument is economic, that the accretion of capital in private hands makes possible economic abundance yet accumulation also leads to depressions, chronic unemployment and the economic breakdown of capitalism (Fusfeld 2002, p 50). At each level the idea of conflict is emphasized conflict between ideal reality, between capital and labor, and b etween stagnation (Fusfeld 2002, p 50). bulge out of conflict comes change, and in this respect according to Marx, capitalism must give way to another society in which conflict is replaced by ethical, social, and economic harmony. Furthermore, Marx argued that the crisis would nonplus deeper and severe longer as capitalism developed.Student no. Z3220293However Marxs analysis of conflict within capitalist societies was limited by his scheme of the laws of motion. He argued that conflict between classes created by an unequal distribution of wealth, and would ultimately lead to an unsustainable social situation prompting the demise of the world capitalist system. Thus, he perceived class conflict as the fatal flaw of capitalism. However his detractors would argue that conflict of some form exists in all clement interactions and thus has existed in all political and economic systems, concluding that capitalism addresses this inherently human conflict in order to avoid crisis.In a ca pitalist society according to Marx, the two great economic interests be those of a capitalist and worker. These two classes stand opposition to each other, since the capitalist can prosper only if the worker is exploited. In this respect capitalism is only the latest in series of social organizations in which one class exists at the expense of another, stated in the communist manifesto. Marxists would further argue that peoples dominated politically or economically by great capitalist nations now feature the burden of exploitation, poverty and unemploymentHowever as a proof of Marxs errors, his detractors point to the rising living standards of modern nations. The working class has not been subjected to growing misery, and labor unions have gained economic and political power in all major industrialized countries (Fusfeld 2002, p 50). Moreover, the working classStudent no. Z3220293has divided the increased wealth, income, and economic benefits that have been spread widely through out all social classes.In spite of all the concessions that have been made to the working class, such(prenominal) as social welfare legislation, union organization and higher living standards Marxists contend that the basic defects of capitalism remain, holding back economic growth and postponing the event of the abundant society (Fusfeld 2002, p 50).Nevertheless Marxs prediction of the triumph of socialism and the creation of democratic, egalitarian, and nonexplotive society has not proved accurate. Capitalism was placed on the defensive by the rise of communist regimes in Russia and China, and by the spread of socialism through many of the less-developed countries (Fusfeld 2002, p 60). But in most instances, these non-capitalist economies developed authoritarian political regimes, new forms of economic and social inequality, and new aspects of exploitation.Ultimately Marx argued, as Fusfeld states ( 2002) the rescue could achieve widespread abundance and produce enough for all, and at that point in human history all people could be completely free, both politically and economically. Further more Marxist economics suggested that capitalism could not achieve thisStudent no. Z3220293goal, as it prevented the full development of modern technology and resulted in periodic stoppage of capital accumulation.However, it is evident that below capitalism technology has flourished. More so capitalism has provided the push for new productive industries, as it is a continued to growing and change. Thus such an economy offers more opportunities therefore a stagnant one. For employment China is the manufacturing hub of the globe. Even though China has its roots in communism it is still regarded as an exceedingly influential capitalist society. Its cities are booming. There are more building cranes in china than in all the United States. Chinas super-highways are filled with modern cars. Its research and development centers are state of the art. At the rate its growing , China will soon be the largest economy in the world. In these respects it is evident to conclude that under capitalism economies have grown and benefited, due to its productive nature.Further more, in a Marx perspective, labor under capitalism is exploited as it is not paid the full value of the products and services it produces. The capitalist employs workers at the current wage rate and works them for as many hours each day as possible, making sure that the value of the workers output is greater than the wage paid (Fusfeld 2002, p 61). This difference between the wage and the value added by the worker, which Marx refers to as surplus value, becomes the capitalist profit. Exploitation of the worker can be intensified, and the surplusStudent no. Z3220293value appropriated by the capitalist can be increased, by an employers efforts to achieve lower wages, longer hours and an employment of greater number of women and children. Marx was correct in some respects, for good example developing countries at present are experiencing high rates of exploitation. Women and children whom work in such exploitive environments in china for example for less then a few dollars a day are the truth in Marxs theory.More so, Marx critique of capitalism included a forecast of its indispensable break down. In some instances capitalism has served as an unstable society, which has been suffocated with conflict and crisis. For example the great depression and the 1987 recession. In both instances the economy had if not nearly hit bottom. In a Marxist view this could be concluded as the demise of capitalism. However his detractors would argue that conflict of some form exists in all political and economic systems, concluding that capitalism addresses this inherently human conflict in order to avoid crisis.Which in some respects is true. For example on black Monday of the October 1987 when a stock collapse of unprecedented size lopped twenty-five percent off the Dow Jones industr ial average. The collapse, larger than that of 1929, was handled well by the economy and the stock market began to quickly recover. More so during the great depression certain strategies were adopted to deal with the crisis. The new deal was the name given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt of programs between 1933-1938 with the goal relief, recovery and reform of the United StatesStudent no. Z3220293economy during the great depression. The new deal had three components, direct relief, economic recovery and financial reform. In these respects one can observe the recovery of capitalist economies and their ability to continue to grow.To conclude it is evident that crisis and conflict is essential in capitalism however such an economic system is able to adapt and recover from such conflict.References student no. Z322093Campbell, D 1996, the failure of Marxism-the fancy of inversion in Marxs critique, Dartmouth Press, capital of the United KingdomCohen, G A 1978, Karl Marx theory of history, Oxford University Press, LondonCulter, A, Hindess, B, Hirst, P & Hussain, A 1977, marxs capital and capitalism today, Routledge &Kegan Paul Ltd, LondonFusfeld, D 2002, the age of the economist, 9edn, Addison Wesley Press,Harman, C 1995, how Marxism works, 5edn, Bookmarks Press, Sydney.Worsley, P 2002, Marx and Marxism, revised edn, Routledge Press, London
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Cruza la frontera yaThere is a serious circumstance that is troubling America the inability of we Americans to accept our Latino counterparts. This is no forgivable matter it is surrounding our country. Sure they illegally drag in the ring still is there really a difference between the America-Mexico border and the Texas-New Mexico border? I didnt think so. These citizens who come to America benefit us in so ways many of which we have never even began to consider.When our Hispanic friends enter the United States they bring with them a whole new culture. These contacts to Hispanic history teach us Spanish. I plan on getting a minor degree in Spanish when I go to college but at this rate I pull up stakes know the language before I even graduate high school. Not only are we exposed to Spanish but also Hispanic solid foods. Where would the country, and especially Roanoke Rapids, be without Mexican food? Think peck. Chimichangas are the fuels to our minds and they give the sewage co mpanies business. All those clogged septic tanks. The food, which Hispanic Americans bring to this country, creates jobs and by the way this economy is red ink we are going to fatality as many jobs as possible.While we are speaking of jobs, allow us address the role of Hispanics in the workplace. The entire reason that they cross the border is to pursue a better life. So let them. Allow these border hoppers to take your job or even give them a job. If you give birth a farm, migrant workers are the new slaves. They are cheap laborers but be sure to buy them as soon as you seem them because they impart be gone in a split second. Even if they cannot become a farmhand they can have our jobs. If all of our jobs are taken then we can all sit at home for the rest of our die hards, be placed on welfare or unemployment, smoke the tobacco that they plucked for our cigarettes, and live off of the corn that was picked last month from Farmer Joes field.Doesnt that sound like an amazing li fe? They can even do our ready to hand(p) work. If you need a new coffee table do not go to Sears and spend $50 on a new table let the Hispanic man across the street build you one hell do if for free. Even if you havent cleaned your house in five months, select the Hispanic lady who lives on the corner to clean it. She wont charge a fee either. As long as you do not inform the government about the illegal status of yourHispanic neighbors they will perform any household task that you ask for them to do. It is by far the fairest deputize that happens in the United States.Another exchange happens on every street corner in the part of town you are scared to visit. These immigrants deal the drugs that our one-year-old adults would be dealing. Let them sell the drugs instead of our youth, this keeps the American children innocent of drug dealing matters. With our kids getting arrested in fifth grade for bringing marijuana to school, we need some other culture to take over. The charges for dealing drugs are much higher than what we would receive for taking the drugs. Smuggling has always been seen as a problem, but why? They are bringing to a greater extent drugs for us to use. Without Hispanic drug smugglers the drug count in the United States would be half as small. agree to their American livelihoods so that our children are safe, from being arrested.Let us look at the other silly laws that are broken by the illegals. Many of our migrants cull to acquire fake Social Security cards. These cards will permit them to receive the same benefits that we are allotted to when we retire. Hey, if we live at home on welfare for the rest of our lives they can receive the Social Security that will deplete in a few years anyway. Their increasing number will probably cause it to drain much sooner at any rate. Driving without a license is also a problem many fusty Americans face with immigration. I cannot see why. The immigrants are so careful not to wreck because they cant be seen without a green card or they will get deported. So naturally, they would be some of the safest drivers in the US of A. Get close to their bumpers and trail behind them. But dont fit them into the bad part of town you might get confused for a dealer.The presence of these immigrants and their drugs will benefit the government officials. Many more police jobs will be created in order to keep up with the constantly growing migrant number. Police will patrol nightly searching for Hispanic people who are jumping fences this is considered to be a sign of a accredited border crosser. Many Americans should feel safer because there will be nightly patrols and true criminals would be caught in the process.By this point I hope you understand how important Hispanic immigrants are to our American existence. We rely on them for much more than you realize. They also save us from many hassles. Soon police will begin to over look all immigrants and so should you. Allow them to take our jobs , deform our fields, sell our drugs, and even deplete our Social Security. The country will be nothing but immigrants and the few true born Americans that are left standing(a) will become the minority. These Hispanic crossers will make Americans feel much safer. Our real criminals are caught and our children are saved from dealing drugs. All this is caused by a few Mexican men who decided to try to cross the America-Mexico border. Their success allowed many other Hispanics to flee to the United States in order to save Americans from ourselves. We should be so grateful of the many sacrifices which Hispanics allow us to create to give them our American Dream
Friday, May 24, 2019
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYBy 2015, Pacific Grove (hereafter referred as PG) leave reach a 55% ratio of interest/bearing debt to total assets and their equity multiplier allow be 2.77 which is pursuant(predicate) with Petersons expectation. I essential be noned that over the next 4 years, PGs interest coverage is forecasted to increase suggesting that they will gradually be building up much earnings to cover its debt payment which is a near(a) hallow for the margins.Dilution of shargons seems give to collect little impact on the EPS of PG sh bes. Therefore, it is expected that PG sh beholders would make the issuing of shares. However, this development has to be clearly communicated by PGs management to its shareholders in order to pip support of this share issuance.It is as well as fairly safe to say that it is a good decision for PG to enter into the television deal. It is noted that the devise would yield a positive NPV at 10%, 15% and 20% discount rates. The project also r equires only a modest initial investitureThe loss of confidence in credit by the overall commercialize had left PG with no choice but to obey the demands of their bank as it would be difficult to obtain credit from other institutions during the time. In entree to that PG was also in the midst of a bearish stock market. This is justified by the fact that investors were anxious about the market and only willing to offer $27.50.A number of recommendations are given to help PG push down their debt levels. These include improving their supply chain efficiency and forecasting so that they can reduce their inventory levels, negotiating with suppliers to reduce the rate they are paying for inventory and can extending the length of their accounts payable.Overall, it is recommend that PG accepts the investment groups offer of $27.50 and issue 400,000 common stock to raise $11M for reasons mentioned preceding in the report. The special(a) funds will give PG more capacity to fund the tel evision program in addition to reducing its debt to meet their banks requirement, as well as purchasing an underpriced High Country.1.0 DEBT match to the forecast in Exhibit 1, PG seems to be on course in confrontation their banks demand of 55% Debt to Total Asset ratio and 2.7 equity multiplier. Table 1 in the appendage illustrates a number of ratios relating to PGs debt. Just by following their expected future growth plans they will almost reach the requirements of the bank within 4 years. Using the information provided from their forecasted financials, by 2015 Pacific Grove will reach a 55% ratio of interest/bearing debt to total assets and their equity multiplier will be 2.77 which is consistent with Petersons expectation.Although PGs current future is projected to meet the banks demands, the issue that is yet to be known is whether the banks are willing to bear PG 4 years to achieve this. If the banks are reluctant to grant PG such a lengthy time period, PG will need to make smart changes in reducing these ratios. Recommendations for PG in to solve this problem are discussed later in the report. An another note, it must be noted that over the next 4 years, PGs interest coverage is forecasted to increase suggesting that they will gradually be building up more earnings to cover its debt payment which is a good sign for the banks. This positive factor might help influence the bank to give PG the entire 4 years to meet their requirements.2.0 SELLING NEW COMMON burgeon forthThe issue with selling new common stock is that it can hold dilution amongst existing shareholders. Shareholder dilution will lower share price in addition to sending a negative signal to the companys shareholders. PGs common shares outstanding would increase from 1,165,327 by 400,000 to 1,565,327. PGs current EPS in 2011 is 2.037. According to the earning figures from the forecast in Exhibit 1, the EPS will be 2.136 after issuingthe new shares at year 2012. Table 2 (attached in the ap pendix) illustrating the EPS from 2012 to 2015 shows that dilution of shares seems have to have little impact on the EPS of PG shares. Therefore, it is expected that PG shareholders would accept the issuing of shares. However, this information has to be clearly communicated by PGs management to its shareholders in order to gain support of this share issuance.3.0 ACQUISITION OF HIGH COUNTRYThe enterprise value of High Country was estimated in order to compare whether the erudition price asked for it is would create impairment in the future. The forecasted financials of High Country is attached in the appendix. The discounted cash flow method gave an enterprise value of $37.56M. Assumptions are given in the appendix as to how this amount was achieved. This amount is way above the asking price of $13.2M (in excess of $24.36M). The excess amount will be recorded on PGs balance sheet as goodwill if the acquisition occurs. As this goodwill amount is very large, it is expected not to be a mortized in the future.Peterson has noted that PG would not consider the acquisition if it is anticipated that there will be future impairment and write-down of goodwill created by the purchase of High Country. As the take value(37.56M) is so much higher than its current market value ($13.2M), it is very unlikely that the goodwill will be impaired in the future. With that said, there will be no write down of goodwill. It must also be noted that based on the analysis of this report, High Country is heavily undervalued. The acquisition of High Country will be come off as a smart buy for PG. Overall, PG should look into acquiring High Country not only because of the unlikely write-down, but also because it is undervalued for what it is truly worth.4.0 TELEVISION DEALJudging by Exhibit 3, it seems fairly safe to say that it is a good decision for PG to enter into the television deal. It is noted that the project would yield a positive NPV at 10%, 15% and 20% discount rates. The project also requires only a modest initial investment of $1,440,000. Working capital forthe following years significantly lowers after the first year of operations from $2,459,543 to $122,977. On top of that, the shows star is a reputable name in the cooking industry. This will boost PGs perception in the market relative to its competitors. All these factors contribute to making the television deal an attractive deal for PG to undertake.5.0 IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CLIMATEPG is exposed to difficult credit purlieu as banks are facing pressure from regulators following the financial crisis of 2008. Due to the loss of confidence in credit by the overall market, PG was left with no choice but to obey the demands of their bank as it would be difficult to obtain credit from other institutions during the time. This has impacted PG in the sense that PG might have to make changes in their operations to suit the banks needs if the bank demands that their requirements be met before 2015.In addition to po or confidence in the credit market, PG is also in the midst of a bearish stock market. From the fact that investors were anxious about the market and only willing to offer $27.50, which is at a lower place the market price, justifies that market participants have lost confidence in the stock market. Due to this market condition, PG will receive less capital funding if they were to accept the offer from the investment group. Overall, the market conditions are not in PGs favour. The loss of confidence in both credit and stock market has negatively impacted PG.6.0 RECOMMENDATIONSIn terms of reducing PGs debt if the bank want the debt figures lowered to the required levels before 2015 then Pacific Grove must do something more aggressive reduce interest bearing debt levels. It is recommended that the company explore ways to reduce its need for working capital financing. They should see if there are ways of improving their supply chain efficiency and forecasting so that they can reduce t heir inventory levels. They should look to negotiate with suppliers to reduce the rate they are paying for inventory. PG should also see if they can extend the length of their accounts payable.Even if they have to pay a slight price premium, if therate (APR) is less than what the banks are charging them in interest, it could help to both save money and reduce their capital needs. They should also see if they can adjust the credit policy terms with their customers to skip the number of days before payment. By reducing receivables and increasing payables they should be able to reduce their financing needs from the bank in notes payable and therefrom lower their interest-bearing debt. Another option to help PG meet the banks demand faster would be to accept the offer by the investment and raise funds by selling common stock. This would store up more cash for future usage and PG will be able to reduce their debt levels in the following years.7.0 CONCLUSIONOverall, it is recommend that PG accepts the investment groups offer of $27.50 and issue 400,000 common stock to raise $11M for reasons mentioned earlier in the report. The extra funds will give PG more capacity to fund the television program in addition to reducing its debt to meet their banks requirement, as well as purchasing an underpriced High Country.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
In order to conduct a stark(a) review of hire affect it is important to offset printing place my own work within the wider context of the existing knowledge in sexual relation to this topic. By looking at studies which reach already been conducted it is mathematical to observe questions which remain unanswered in this field and to look critically at existing literature in order to give my personal theater of operations a greater sense of purpose and to ensure that it makes significant contribution to the field. loving Construct of Train TravelA particular area of sight relating to train travel which seems interesting to me is that which is pointed away(a) by Watts (2008). In her paper she examines the social, imaginary and material work involved in making a jaunt by rail. Following ethnographic research consisting of quotations and photographs the author argues that rail passengers are spatially distributed when they make a move by train.In her analysis she points out th at a great deal of research has been conducted into the way in which m and space are arrive ated in society, however few researchers have conducted a item analysis of the items and people involved in this creation. As a result this is an area I am keen to investigate as the way in which succession and space is created is an area which invites more specific investigation and simultaneously this topic in relation to train travel has had little academic attention. thereof by investigating this topic I get I would be fitted to fill a gap in existing research.A boost article which ramp ups on this notion of the social construct of travelling by rail is that of Bissell (2008). In his employment he looks at some of the fluid relationships between everyday visuality, materiality and mobility through practices of contemporary railway travel in Britain (1) The article looks primarily at the visual issues in train travel including the internal of the carriage and the landscape viewe d through the window in relation to how these affect the perceptions of time, space and location throughout the journey.Such a take on train travel is something which I am very interested in and by using the conclusions made in this paper I would be able to sum up to the cannon of debate on this topic to contrast the findings of this study with those from an American perspective, to broaden this debate into a multi cultural arena where it may be the fibre that a vastly different social construct is created through train travel. This notion is extremely interesting to me and is one which, as it is yet to be demonstrable from a transnational context, would thence allow me to add to the academic body of knowledge on this topic.Train Travel for BusinessAlong with the social construct of train travel another area which much literature has been conducted into is train travel in relation to alleviating problems for businesses. As train travel is often attemptn by business professional s who may need to get from two areas which are relatively far apart and are both subject to high levels of street congestion the degree to which train travel is an set upive way for businesses to get to different locations for meetings or negotiations I feel therefore is an important one.One paper which has do this in relation to the relative effectiveness of train travel versus air or road travel for businesses is that of Bhat (1995). In his paper Bhat deploys an extremely qualitative and thorough evaluation of what he terms the independence of ir applicable alternatives (IIA) in order for him to be able to come to the conclusion that different approaches to this topic elicited a different set of results.As this paper had a heavy weighting on the effectiveness of specific rulels in investigating this topic I feel that one way in which it can be improved is to select an approach or a model from the outset, and then stick with this throughout in order for the conclusion to be mor e orientated around the travel mode as opposed to the model itself. Nonetheless this paper does point out to me that the heteroscedastic model is superior to both the multinomial logit and nested logic models in the quality of results it is able to generate and therefore it willing be worth me bearing this in mind when I come to conduct my own research.Another paper on a similar topic to this explores the relationship between the timing of your journey and the choice of which shippingation mode you take. Conducted by Nurul Habib et al. (2009) this paper conducts a correlational analysis of these two decisions and comes to the conclusion that unobserved factors contributed to both the decision of which time to undertake your journey and which transport mode to take.Something I found particularly helpful about this paper was that it pointed out the tendency for congested peak travel periods to complicate which is a phenomenon known as peak spreading. As this paper provides empirica l evidence for this notion is therefore justifies further investigation owing to the richness of travel between cities in todays society. Similarly, as this paper utilises a multinomial logit model, a discrete-continuous econometric model and a continuous time hazard model the issues relating to the effectiveness of these models has been highlighted to me as an area I will need to conduct a further amount of research in to in order to ensure that the method I ultimately select is effective in generating reliable results.Along with this issue of which model to apply to my research a study by Kroes and Sheldon (1988) point out another issue I should be aware of when conducting research into train travel. In their article they conduct a review of the stated preference method in the transport sector by another of other academics and assess the value of using this method in comparison to other similar methods to assessing why people have selected the particular mode of transport.As this article covers a range of other train transport related studies it therefore is useful in assessing the literature in this field as a whole as it has a rather broad scope. By looking at the respective(prenominal) studies and the successful and unsuccessful elements of them I am therefore able to select a method which suits my particular study some aptly and as a result conduct a thorough and exhaustive investigation into my chosen area of train travel.Travel Time cay names in the field of rail travel include Laura Watts and David Bissell. Something which they have both written about is the notion of travel time in relation to passenger experience. In a study by Watts and Urry (2008) the authors attempt to provide evidence to dispel the myth that time spent travelling is wasted and dead. In order to encourage funding into travel projects the authors propose that rather that attempting to minimise travel time, by linking the notion of travelling with activities and fantasies they t herefore suggest that the perception that travel time is wasted is therefore incorrect.Through looking at activities such as engaging with other passengers, accessing wireless networks, views out the window and using items you have packed in your bag they therefore provide evidence which ultimately represent travel time as a useful being of time where practical and fantasy activities can be indulged, thus encouraging investment into travel projects and infrastructures. I find this research particularly useful as it has called for a revaluation of previously taken for granted attitudes towards travelling by train.By looking at the topic more broadly and dispelling common misconceptions the authors are able to create an article which both covers brand new ground and gives attention to an under investigated issue. The theoretical approach they establish therefore is something I wish to build upon in my own study as the issue is so recent it therefore is yet to have any support or criti cism contact it.A further study by Bissell also investigates this topic however from a different perspective. Bissell (2010) looks at the notion of community and atmosphere within a train carriage. He notes something which I find interesting, that there is a certain atmosphere within a train carriage which has a powerful effect on the traveller in terms of a reticent passivity which contradicts a set of forces which work when travelling by train which prime an individual to act.As far as I am aware this societal approach to the atmosphere on a train carriage has only been conducted in relation to psychology and obedience before and therefore it is very interesting that Bissell has looked at it within the field of transport. Whilst I feel that this study is extremely relevant and is something a great number of people may be able to relate to some criticism I have is that the notion he is describing is extremely intangible and whilst he does provide extensive primary research as evid ence the atmosphere is difficult to pin and down and evaluate scientifically.Another study on this topic is that of Ole (2009). This study looks at the idea of mobility in urban areas. The author describes the tendency for modern cities to be represented not just by their static venues but also by their pass over spaces and argues that there should be a re configuration of the way in which identities of place are conceptualised and that transit spaces ought to become a location for meaningful interaction and pleasure. As with the Watt and Urry article this paper calls for a revaluation of the attitudes towards train travel and therefore provides a useful framework which forms a base upon which it would be possible to build upon and expand in my own study.ConclusionThroughout my literature study I have been able to identify the key theorists in the field of train travel and highlight some potent and relevant issues in this area of study. By looking critically at research which has a lready been conducted I am now able to ensure that my own study brings new ideas into academic converse and that my investigation does not cover ground already subject to analysis. The gaps I have noted and other observations made throughout the body of my text therefore now place me in an ideal position to be able to come to a conclusion based on relevant research which will be will informed and critical in its scope.Works CitedBissell, David. Visualising everyday geographies practices of vision through travel-time Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34 (2008) 42- 60BissellDavid. passenger mobilities affective atmospheres and the sociality of public transport. Environment and Planning D Society and Space 28 (2010) 270- 89Bhat, Chandra. A heteroscedastic extreme value model of intercity travel mode choice. Transportation Research dampen B Methodological 29 (1995) 471- 83Kroes, Eric P. and Sheldon, Robert J., Stated Preference Methods An Introduction. Journal of T ransport Economics and Policy 22 (1988), 11- 25Nurul Habib, Khandker, Day, Nicholas, and Miller, Eric. An investigation of commuting trip timing and mode choice in the Greater Toronto Area Application of a joint discrete-continuous model. Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice 43 (2009) 639- 53Ole, Jensen B. Flows of Meaning, Cultures of Movements Urban Mobility as Meaningful Everyday Life Practice. Mobilities 4 (2009) 139-58Watts, Laura. The art and craft of train travel. Social and Cultural Geography 9 (2008) 711- 26WattsLaura and UrryJohn. Moving methods, travelling times. Environment and Planning
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Perceptual maps help to improve a companys current reaping on the market by mapping consumer scene of the harvest-home. The motorcycle company Thorr Motors perceptual maps were used to create a marketing plan to aid in maintaining a high mug image of their motorcycles. The merchandise Dictionary defines perceptual maps as a process by which consumers perceptions of an existing product are charted (n.d., para. 1). In this paper the three phases of the simulation, the situation, recommended solution, and results pull up stakes be discussed. In addition there lead be a discussion on relationship between differentiation and positioning of products or services and the impact of the product life cycle on marketing.Phase I (201)Sales of the Cruiser Thorr are decreasing. This is so because the Cruiser Thorrs can consumers are senescence and their tastes have begun to grow the modus vivendi that Cruiser Thorr symbolizes. In addition to this issue, younger consumers are to a greater extent interested in lower priced motorcycles due to their lower personal disposable incomes and they do non indentify with Cruiser Thorrs lifestyle image. This scenario wanted to determine the Cruiser Thors position in the market by choosing four relevant contestations that will reflect the highest potential.For phase I the parameters that were elect were lifestyle image, services offered, price, and quality engineering. Lifestyle image was chosen since the image for the Cruiser Thorr was being outgrown by the aging target auditory sense and was not identifiable with younger consumers. Since the Cruiser Thorrs lifestyle image is set very high any vital culture gathered will be highly useful to maintain that level of image so that it satisfies both an older and younger audience. function offered was another parameter chosen because compared to their competitors the services offered by the Cruiser Thorr are limited. The more frills a product comes with, the more it may heighten the desire for it.The third parameter that was chosen was price. Price was chosen because for many an(prenominal) consumers price is one of the intimately important factors in making a buying decision. Furthermore, it was stated forward that younger consumers were more interested in lower priced motorcycles. Finding out how much is too much as well as how low can you go without diluting brand image will be important in determining theappropriate price tag to spark consumer interest. The last parameter chosen was quality engineering. This was chosen because of the fact that the Cruiser Thorr will not be able to maintain a high brand image without this feature (University of Phoenix, 2004).The decision to use lifestyle image, services offered, price, and quality engineering were the appropriate parameters to use. The parameters that were chosen were fundamental to the perceptual map and gave the best perspective as opposed to the other options.Phase IIThe position of the Cruiser T horr is determined by the perceptual map and this position has not helped sales. This scenario calls for the marketing theater director to create a marketing plan that will either reposition the Cruiser Thorr or set in motion a new motorcycle. Upon researching threats and weaknesses of Thorr Motorcycles, the decision was made to launch a new motorcycle, the RRoth, which will grab the direction of younger consumers.With the new launch the marketing mix motiveed to be determined. The price for the new RRoth was set between $13,000 and $15,000. This price range was chosen because earlier surveys conducted showed that the younger consumers were more interested in lower priced motorcycles. The types of promotions chosen were sponsored events at Daytona, offering insurance and protection plans, free test rides, publicize through Hollywood films, and providing giveaway merchandise. These were all chosen because of the high amount of appeal these types of promotional methods would have on younger consumers.The places chosen to promote the RRoth were the internet (Manufacturers electronic network site), Dealers, and Distributors. These options were chosen because of the accessibility to younger consumers, especially the internet. The services chosen were training to dealers, customization options, and financial services. Training to dealers was chosen so that the dealers can provide detailed and accu rate information about the products sold. Customization options were chosen because this would add to the cool and youthful image of the RRoth. Financial services were chosen because the younger consumers indicated an interest in financing options.Choosing to launch a new motorcycle turned out to be a good decision. The marketing mix options chosen were the most optimal for the formulation of a differentiation strategy.Phase IIIIt has been a year since the marketing plan was implemented and it is now time to determine if the plans have or have not been a success. Con sumer perceptions of the Cruiser Thorr and the RRoth have been surveyed and a perceptual map will show whether or not the marketing activities have been a success. The marketing manager has to interpret market research to plot brand attributes of Cruiser Thorr. In addition, attributes relevant to the RRoth need to be chosen and interpreted to create RRoths perceptual map.The Cruiser Thorr was rated in lifestyle image at 9 because initially this was rated very high. A nine would be most appropriate. For price a rate of 4 was chosen because consumers saw this particular motorcycle as pricey compared to other brands. A rating of 4 or 5 would be appropriate. Services offered are rated at a 7 because services for the Cruiser Thorr is limited compared to competitors but were revamped because of consumer response. A rating of 7 is most appropriate.Quality engineering was rated at 8 because consumers think that Cruiser Thorrs engine is the best. A rating of 8 is very appropriate. The RRoth was rated at a 7 for lifestyle image because wish well other Thorr motorcycles consumers are already considering it a status symbol. The rating chosen was the appropriate choice. Price was rated at 8 because the RRoth is cheaper than the Cruiser Thorr in order to target a younger consumer. An 8 rating is appropriate. Cool was chosen for the RRoth because of the younger audience and a rating of 8 was chosen. A rating of 8 was most appropriate.Relationship between differentiation and positioning of products or servicesDifferentiation of product is according to Investopedia a marketing process that showcases the differences between products (Investopedia, .n.d., para. 1). billet of products is the consumer perception of a product or service as compared to its competition (Lake, n.d., para. 1). The relationship is that in order for a company to be a leader in that particular pains not only do they have to differentiate themselves fromthe competition, but they must also see a positio n in the market that when consumers needs need to be met, that company will be number one on the list in consumers minds.The repositioning of the product in the simulation is what I had expected. It was expected because one of the main issues was the changing perceptions of the consumers and there was nothing wrong with the physical product. Tastes were changing but the product was still of high quality. Like many companies they offered a fresh new product and for Thorr Motorcycles this attracted younger consumers. But they did not totally scrap efforts on the Cruiser Thorr and worked on revamping the image.Product Life unit of ammunitionThe impact the product life cycle has on marketing is that business need to plan their products around the product life cycle. Knowing where the product is on the cycle, marketing strategies can be adjusted to maintain profitability. A particular firms marketing mix usually must change during the product life cycle (Perreault et al, 2004, pg. 270). In the simulation the Cruiser Thorr was in the decline stage of the life cycle as their sales were declining rapidly. The declining sales were because the older audiences tastes were outgrowing the Cruiser Thorr and younger consumers were put off by the high price. Because Cruiser Thorr was in decline stage, a new motorcycle, the RRoth was introduced to the life cycle and aimed at a different target group to revamp sales and consumer perception.ConclusionThe perceptual map helped to determine consumer expectations for Thorr Motorcycles. Precise parameters were determined to hone in on incisively what they wanted and expected from the company. This ultimately is what enabled Thorr Motorcycles to reposition consumer perceptions back to where Thorr motors wanted. In this paper the three phases of the simulation, the situation, recommended solution, and results were discussed. In addition there was a discussion on relationship between differentiation and positioning of products or ser vices and the impact of the product life cycle on marketing.ReferencesDifferentiation. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved on February 16, 2008from,http//www.investopedia.com/terms/p/product_differentiation.aspLake, L. (n.d.). Product Positioning Definition. Retrieved on February 16, 2008 from,http//marketing.about.com/od/marketingglossary/g/prodpostdef.htmPerceptual mapping. (n.d.). Dictionary of Marketing Terms. Retrieved February 16,2008, from Answers.com Web sitehttp//www.answers.com/topic/perceptual-mappingPerreault, W.D., & McCarthy, E.J. (2004). Basic Marketing A Global-ManagerialApproach. McGraw-Hill CompaniesUniversity of Phoenix. (2006). General Marketing. Retrieved February 16, 2008, fromUniversity of Phoenix, Resource, Simulation, MKT421-Marketing Web sitehttps//mycampus.phoenix.edu/secure/resource/vendors/tata/UBAMsims/general_marketing/general_marketing_perceptual_maps_simulation.html
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
The theory of constraints is a management philosophy which was developed by Goldratt in 1986. It is based on identifying the limiting factors/constraints in a system which whitethorn hinder it from achieving its intended goals. It states that for much(prenominal) a system to improve, the constraint mustiness be identified and dealt with accordingly.Question one.The major cause of the backlog at the BCMC magnetic resonance imaging clinic is due to the low productivity of the MR machine and the heavy overtime catalogue which strains the MR technologist and leads to scanning of lesser patients per hour. Although the machine is designed to make one scan per hour, it is not meeting this target due to various limiting factors such as poor communication between the patient and the hospital scan-scheduling department which has led to booking and overbooking of patients at the wrong times. This has resulted in the clinic having too many patients which it is unable(p) to handle.Question tw o.The major problem of this process lies in the clinics scheduling department which makes so many mistakes when booking the appointments for the patients scanning. This system unlike previous MRI providers does not handle the scheduling leaving all the workload to the scheduling department and this has proved to be quite hectic for them.Question three.According to the radioscopy department manager, the clinic should consider hiring another MR technologist to ease the pressure on the present technologist and improve the lead-time. In addition, the clinic should consider introducing another shift may be in the early hours of the evening in order to ensure that more patients are attended to per day.In addition to the above recommendation, as Kevin and/or David i would recommend that more incentives be given to Jeff the MR technologist for every extra time he puts in. This would motivate him to work more thus increase the number of scans he performs per day and it will help a great dea l in reducing the backlog.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Education in its cosmopolitan sense is a form of learning in which friendship, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from oneness and only(a) generation to the next through pedagogics, training, research, or simply through autodidacticism. 1 Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. Systems of domesticateing involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a course, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the inculcates in the system.Schools systems were also ground on peoples religion giving them different curricula. edit Curriculum main(prenominal) articles Curriculum, Curriculum theory, and List of academic disciplines School clawren in Durban, South Africa. In formal knowledge, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin denomination for race course, ref erring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults.A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what take aim to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the universityor via some other such method. Each discipline ordinarily has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are oftentimes both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the essential sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.5 commandal institutions may incorporate fine liberal arts as part of K-12 grade curriculums or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The various types of fine arts are music, dance, and theater. 6 edit Preschools Main article Preschool education The term pres chool refers to a school for children who are not archaic enough to attend kindergarten. It is a nursery school. Preschool education is important because it underside give a child the edge in a competitive world and education climate.citation needed While children who do not dumbfound the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors and designs when they begin their formal education they will be behind the children who already possess that knowledge. The true purpose behind kindergarten is to provide a child-centered, preschool curriculum for trey to seven year old children that aimed at unfolding the childs physical, intellectual, and moral nature with equilib organise emphasis on each of them. 7edit Primary schools Main article Primary education Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842. Primary (or main(a)) education consists of the first 57 years of formal, str uctured education. In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of tuition starting at the period of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising.8 Under the Education For All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have move to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to experience primary education. The division between primary and supplementary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate plaza schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are mostly referred to as primary schools.Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant scho ols and junior school. In India, compulsory education spans over twelve years, out of which children receive elementary education for 8 years. Elementary schooling consists of five years of primary schooling and 3 years of upper primary schooling. Various states in the republic of India provide 12 years of compulsory school education based on national curriculum framework designed by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Students working with a teacher at Albany Senior High School, New ZealandStudents in a classroom at Samdach Euv High School, Cambodia In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, post-secondary, or higher education (e. g. university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this perio d, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools.The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from inelegant to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 113 is used.The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession. The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance, the emergence of electrification), that required skilful workers . In order to fancy this new job demand, high schools were created, with a curriculum focused on practical job skills that would violateprepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work.This proved to be honest for both employers and employees, for the improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment. In Europe, grammar schools or academies naming from as early as the 16th century, in the form of public schools, fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations, which themselves have an even longer history.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Introduction A number of problems were made during the recent hiring process. This case Study is an attempt to rate and recommend ways to improve this process. From the information that has been obtained, I believe that a lack of employee experience and a lack of prior planning and follow up resulted in a failure to accomplish every last(predicate) the task necessary to hire the new employees in a timely fashion. ?Background Carol Robins, a new campus recruiter for ABC, Inc. , in early April he was able to hire 15 new trainees who were destined to produce for Monica Carrolls,the operations supervisor.From the interviews that were conducted, it appears that Carl was unable to accomplish all of the tasks necessary so that the new hires could begin work. These tasks included documentation, do drugs testing, material preparation for the orientation, and facility scheduling. Monica Carrolls did contact Carl on May 15 concerning his process with the hiring process. Other employees had f ailed to bear on the paper copy of the master orientation manual current so that it can be chop-chop copied. another(prenominal) factor appears the rapid expansion of the company.Alternatives With more than one problem a major guidance on a number of different Solutions, such as, Prior planning by Carl could drive home eliminated close towhat of the issues however, Carls in experience would probably still have resulted in there being some problems. The company has failed to provide relatively inexperienced employees, like Carl, with comprehensive procedures and job practices. Under the topic of supervision, Monica Carrolls could have made contact more often with Carl. But her job, as operations manager, does not include his supervision.Another reply to the supervision problem could be to increase the supply in the human resources department. However, on question this does not appear to be the most efficient solution due to the increased costs. Another solution would be to m aintain the master New Employee orientation course manual in electronic format. Having the manual in electronic form allows for easy updating of the policy and procedures, and prevents inadvertent loss or damage to that document. This manner is cost effective and easily implemented. ?Proposed Solutions.A New Employee Checklist bequeath be created with all pre-employed tasks listed on it. ?The Employee Orientation manual will be maintained in an electronic format. ?Some of the pre-employment tasks will become the duty of the potential employees to accomplish. Potential employees will report when the tasks have been completed. A member of the human resource staff will confirm that the task has been completed correctly. ?Employees like, Carl Robins, will be required to submit weekly reports particularization the current status of all potential employees.?Recommendations New employees are the only way the work of this governing body gets accomplished. Everyone efforts to sustain the continued growth and profits of this company cannot be ignored. With the continued growth of the company the proposed solutions that the employee will make on that day may need to be modified as the company becomes larger. I would recommend that a periodic review of the hiring process looking for ways to improve it. And also a review should be done on an annual basis.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
Chapter 1 Introduction1.0 Introduction timberland is an of import worldwide renewable natural resource. Forests comprise virtu bothy one-third of the domain s consummate land mass ( 3.4 billion km? ) . in that respect be an estimated 12,000 species of trees, to to each one one bring forwardsing a characteristic type of timberlandwindswindwind. ( Inter home(a) confidence for look on Cancer, 1995 ) Wood establish in circularisery in Malaysia comprises four major bomber sectors. on that point be sawn timber veneer and panel merchandises, which include plyboard, and new(preno bital) reconstituted panel merchandises much(prenominal) as dissolveicleboard, hardboard, or fibreboards, m elderlyings, builders joinery and woodwindwindlandlandwind instrumentwind imprinting, piece of piece of article of article of furniture and furniture constituents.The in constellatery is preponderantly owned by Malayan and it is estimated that 80 per centime to 90 per cent of th e companies comprise little and come surface of itd constitutions. In Malaysia, furniture leadrs produce a broad mountain range of furniture from dining room, sleeping room, kitchen, purpose, occasional, living room, upholstered furniture or couch, outdoor and tend furniture. In Malaysia wood based exertion for furniture and fixtures public presentation, furniture in ashesry is steeply export-oriented with over 90 per cent of its production exported. Malaysia presently ranked as the ten percent largest exporter of furniture in the universe and 2nd in Asia after the People s Republic of China, with exports to more than 160 states.In 2008, exports of wooden furniture amounted to RM 6.8 billion. The chief export turn ons were the United States of America, Japan and Australia. The export cherish is expected to make RM 10 billion by 2010.More than 80 per cent of the furniture exported from kitchen furniture, sleeping room furniture, upholstered with wooden frame, and polish office furniture argon made from gum elastic wood, or Hevea Brasiliensis which is a light colored, medium hardwood popularly called Malaysian Oak.As the demand for exports of furniture additions, so does the production invest additions, and in Malaysia furniture in framery, the health jeopardy associated with wood form break yet receive coverage particularly with touch to the wellness of its manoeuverers and to the environmental transmission line timbre environing it. Wood diffuse is defined as any wood atoms originating from the processing or handling of forests. Wood corpse is generated when lumber is processed, such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as when it is chipped, sawed, turned, drilled, or sanded. ( occupational Safety wellness Administration, 1989 ) .Wood remains is shapely quantityd as nervous strain-borne atom pass around tightfistedness, by atom size of it dispersion, by type of wood, and by other shoot a lines of wood ( International authoriz ation Research Cancer 1995 ) . Wood break up is use to fix wood coal, as an absorbent for glyceryl trinitrate, as a filler in plastics, and in linoleum and poster board ( Radian. , 1991 ) . Another commercial system for wood form is in wood composts ( Weber et al. , 1993 ) .Wood scatter occurs in the environment in countries where machinery or appliances argon utilize to pass over or determine wood. No flash-point readings be available for wood diffuse. However, wood dust is flammable and allow light in the environment. It whitethorn show a strong to severe magnification jeopardy if a dust cloud contacts an ignition beginning. Wood dust is s skirt under normal testing ground conditions.Exposure to wood dust occurs to persons utilize machineries to bear or determine wood. Deposition within the demeanor passages depend on the size, form, and the minginess of the dust atoms and the turbulency and speed of the ambience flow. ( International Agency Research Cancer 1981 ) . Use of baseball mitt held galvanizing unlineds ar identified as a in particular dusty, which would take to flick to wood dust. Wood dust concentrations vary with type of dust extraction, come of wood removed and type of smoother. ( Thorpe and Brown, 1994 ) . Different type of wood will be offices bring forth antithetic shopping mall of dust. Hardwood and deal are contrary in the physical chemical be presbyopicingss that leads to the distinguishable in the sum of wood produced.1.1 Signifi stomachce of surveyThe moments of this survey areTo detect the form of safety and wellness consciousness among the workers of wood working to wood dust.To propose a extenuation attack to minimise the pictorial matter to wood dust through and through technology pull strings and good house maintaining.1.2 Aims of the surveyTo prise the mental picture of wood dust concentrations on sanding and routing wood maps in a Rubber wood furniture mill.To suggest appropriate steps to cut checkmate wood dust salary extend in the furniture mill.1.3 Problem statementWood dust is cognise to be a human carcinogens based on surveies done by Research workers from the Department of Health and pitying services in United States and American Conference of Governmental Indus tally Hygienists ( ACGIH ) proposed 1 mg/m? of eight hr Time Weighted Average economic lever for all wood dust species. In general, exposure to inordinate sum of wood dust is considered to hold an irritant backwash on eyes, nose, and throat in add-on to pneumonic role damage. on that pointof, the intent of holding a monitoring plan is to nib and supervise the gradation of exposure of wood dust to the environing environment and particularly on workers that have historical background or old record of holding any related wellness jeopardies to wood dust.1.4 HypothesissThe hypotheses in this survey are sinless wood dust concentration and Respirable dust concentration on sanding and routing functio nings in furniture indus punish falls into the root wordard bound as proposed in occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 by Department of Occupational Safety and Health Malaysia ( DOSH Malaysia ) which is 1 mg/m3.Furniture mill have their ain safety steps taken to cut down the sum of dust emitted by the usage of cyclones and Personal Protective Equipment wore on workers.1.5 Case survey backgroundThe location for this survey is in Muar, Malaysia one of the virtually concentrated part for furniture fabrication industry and production of Rubberwood furniture s. The mill is situated at the 4th Lot in Industrial Zone Parit Jamil, where Rubber wood furniture merchandises such as table leg, bed lays, light base are made. The mill itself has ampere-second workers, chiefly are from Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar.1.6 limit of surveyQuestionnaire signifiers that have been distri simplyed are chiefly done in Bahasa Malaysia callable to linguistic communication restraint among workers from unlike states such as Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam and Nepal workers in the mill.Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionForests cover around tierce of the universe the Earth s entire land country, about 3.4 million km2.There are 3.5 thousand million M3 of the tree biomass is harvested, about half which is apply as fuel, the remainder as sawn wood, pulpwood, and more. ( Gichner. , 1995 ) . There are an estimated 12, 000 species of trees, each bring forthing a characteristic types of wood.2.1 Definition of wood dustOccupational Safety and Health 1989 stated that wood dust is defined as any wood atoms originating from the processing or handling of forests. Wood dust is generated when lumber is processed such as when it is chipped, sawed, turned, drilled or sanded. Harmonizing to IARC 1995, Wood dust is known as a light browned or tan hempen pulverization. It has a special(prenominal) gravitation of 0.56. Most tree species are broad-leafed tree, hardwood chiefly angiosperms. M erely about 800 species known as deal are Gymnosperms, or cone-bearing species, . ( Bauch. , 1975 )Type of woodThe footings hardwood and sof dickensod does non needfully mention to the inclementness of the wood, but to the species. Hardwood is by and large denser compared to sof twainod, where the denseness varies well within each group. The scientific and common names of some deal and hardwood are compiled in table 1 ( Vaucher. , 1986 ) . Wood dust is besides characterized by its wet content Dry wood ( moisture content less(prenominal) than approximately 15-20 % ) is less elastic than moist ( green ) wood, and carpentry operations with dry wood consequence in a larger rule book of entire dust and a higher per centum of inhalable dust atoms ( Hinds. , 1988 ) .2.2 Occupational exposure to wood dust.Dust exposure occurs in a big figure of woodworking industries, where dust arises from scratch, grinding, screening or blending. Traditionally, wood dust is considered as a nuisance dust, and its inauspicious effects on blossom forth workers have further received attending. ( W.K.Liu et al. , 1985 ) . Harmonizing to Jones and Smith 1986, in this century, veneer- and plastic covered hardboard and fiber-board panels have been used intensively for the industry of cabinets, table winds and similar and hardwood merchandises. Solid hardwoods and hardwood-veneered panels are used for high-quality furniture because of the mesmeric form formed by their grains.Wood dust exposure occurs in chiefly as an occupational exposure in some industries and businesss. The partial list of open workers includes lumbermans sawmill workers, workers involved in the industry of plyboard and other boards, wooden furniture workers and cabinet shapers, workers in the industry of other wood merchandises, and carpenters and joiners in the building industry. Exposure to wood dust has long been associated with a assortment of inauspicious wellness effects, including dermatitis, supersens itized respiratory effects, mucosal and non allergic respiratory effects, and malignant neoplastic distemper. Other symptoms associated with wood dust exposure include oculus annoyance, rhinal waterlessness and obstructor, prolonged colds, and frequent concerns.The type and phase of exposure to wood dust can be described in several(prenominal) slipway. A first of import feature is the type of wood ( hardwood, deal ) and tropical wood, or other wood species. Hardwoods are deciduous trees such as oak tree, beech, calcium hydroxide, ash, birch, poplar, elm, or cherry trees. Softwood is cone-bearing trees, such as fir, spruce or pine. Wood is besides characterized by its wet content, which depends both on the species and on the freshness of the wood. The concentration of airborne dust is by and large measured in mg/m? with standard methods. ( IARC, 1995 ) The atom size is besides an of import parametric quantity, because the deposition form in human upper and displace air-ways par tially depends on the atom size. Large atoms ( & gt 10m ) are about wholly deposited in the olfactory electronic organ.Researchs on wood dust believe that comparatively that few atoms larger than 5m, which form virtually of the wood dust, yesteryear into the lungs every arcminute far as the clearance mechanism of the olfactory organ is non impaired. The inquiries on whether wood dust or dust from one or several forests contains carcinogens have been raised. There is no clear reply to this inquiry. A really big figure of chemical constituent are present in wood. Cellulose, polyoses, lignin, terpene, terpenoids, fats, waxes and phenolic compounds such as tannic acids, but none is a known carcinogen. ( Leclerc and Luce. , 1998 )Types of business are straight related to the sum of exposure to wood dust. Lumbermans and sawmill workers are loose to comparatively big atoms of fresh wood. The average degree of wood dust is by and large lower than 1mg/m3. Wooden furniture industry and c abinet devising involves a big figure of woodworking occasions, such as sawing, planning, come offing, sanding and usage of milling machines that produce wood dust ( Nylander et al. , 1993 ) A assortment of species are used, with predomination of hardwood for high quality furniture manufactured by cabinet shapers, for illustration in Asian states. The average size of the atoms may be particularly little, because the forests need to be really dry, which produces really better atoms and the sanding, is much finer for furniture industries, for aesthetic grounds. There is some grounds that sanding of hardwood can bring forth finer smaller atoms. ( Acheson. , 1976 )2.3 Sanding of wood.Sand musical compositioning is smoothing the get hold of wood an scratchy procedure in which borders of little, difficult, crystalline atoms are quickly drawn across the surface of the wood, with force per unit of measurement area being applied perpendicular to the surface ( Holliday et al. , 1986 ) . The smaller the scratchy atoms, the finer the dust produced, and the faster the smoother, the greater the sum of dust produced. Sandpapering is the normally used come uping method continuing wood coating ( Williams and Morris. , 1998 ) . The chief aim of sanding is to do surfaces free of macroscopic defects every issue good as to makes surfaces uniformly absorbent for coatings ( Richter et al. , 1995 )Sandpapering is done in many wood industries, with little, handheld smoothers to big drumfishs or belts for smoothing a full panel. There are few different ways in sanding of wood. The close common are the belt smoother, where a uninterrupted strip of emery paper go around between two rollers, the disc smoother, where a round piece of emery paper fastened to a revolving disc, the drumfish smoother, where a uninterrupted strap of emery paper rotated on a tympan, and the or manal smoother, which operates with an egg-shaped, vibrating gesture. Use of baseball glove held electric s moothers has been identified as a peculiarly dust-covered procedure, which would take to exposure to dust. Wood dust concentrations vary with type of dust extraction, sum of wood removed, and type of smoother ( Thorpe and Brown et al. , 1995 ) .For electrical orbital smoothers without built-in dust extraction, entire inhalable or inspirable dust concentrations ranged from 0.42 to 8.01 mg/m3, dust concentrations were reduced 84.3 % to 97.97 % when the smoothers were used with fitted bags. For electric belt smoothers, entire inhalable dust concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 19.8 mg/m3 without built-in dust extraction and were reduced 66.1 % to 93.5 % with bags. For electric orbital smoothers with foreign dust extraction, entire dust concentrations ranged from 0.022 to 0.739 mg/m3, and respirable dust concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.936 mg/m3. Rotary smoothers with external dust extraction produced entire dust concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.699 mg/m3, and respirable dust ranged from 0.001 to 0.088 mg/m3.A survey carried out on the dust genesis features of hardwoods during sanding procedure reveals that sum of wood removed during the sanding procedure predetermined dust-generation, although the wood denseness and scratchy grit used played a function. Consequently, low denseness wood species produced higher dust-concentration due o its comparative easiness of sanding, and vice-versa. Different sanding operations will bring forth different sum of dust concentration ( Graham and Ratnasingam.,2007 ) . This is proven by a survey carried on six hardwood species stand foring commercially of import hardwoods use in Malayan wood merchandises fabricating industry selected based on hardness and denseness as in circumvent 2.1.Hardwood speciesAverage denseness ( kg/m3 )Average hardness ( N )Resak ( Vatica sp. )8707040Balau ( Shorea sp. )8206980Kelat ( genus Syzygium sp. )6705140Merawan ( Hopea sp. )6405080Rubberwood ( Hevea sp. )5403440Meranti ( Shorea sp. )530 3610 defer 2.1 Malayan Hardwood species used in wood merchandises fabricating industry. ( Taken from Dust-generation features of hardwoods during sanding procedures ) Ratnasingam et al. , 2009.From the survey conducted, it is shown that the sum of wood removed is the approximately of import factor finding dust-generation during wood sanding processes. Machine sanding utilizing belt-sanding procedure yielded the highest dust concentrations compared to script sanding. This is shown by the important alteration in dust concentration shown in Table 2.2 below..ProcedureDust concentrations ( mg/m3 )Average wood remotion ( gms )Hand sanding197Orbital sanding269Wide belt-sanding4318Edge sanding166.5Stroke sanding3111Brush sanding115.5Table 2.2 Dust concentration at different sanding procedures Taken from dust-generation features of hardwoods during sanding procedures. by Ratnasingam et al. , 2009.Based on the consequences, about all sanding operations produced dust concentration higher tha n the standard allowable dust exposure degree of 5mg/m3, proposing that sanding dust control is of import in the furniture fabrication industry, if wellness and safety criterions are travelling to be met ( Graham and Ratnasingam et al. , 2007 ) .2.4 Properties and Toxicity of wood dustWood dust is one of the most common organic dusts workers are exposed to in the furniture fabrication industry. ( Ratnasingam et al. , 2009 ) . Surveies have found that exposure to wood dust can do wellness effects like rhinal mucosa harm, annoyance and Sino-nasal malignant neoplastic distemper, man deep lung deposition can take to lung malignant neoplastic affection and impaired respiratory map ( Shamssain. , 1992 ) and ( Mikkelsen. , 2002 ) . Therefore a survey was undertaken to measure air-borne wood dust concentration and its atom size distribution in the Malayan Rubberwood furniture industry, one of the largest wood industry in South East Asia. try periods of 8 hours were undertaken at the ro uting and hand-sanding work Stationss to find the Time- chargeed blind drunk value of wood dust concentration.The mean air-borne dust concentration recorded for routing work station ( 63mg/m3 ) was lower than the sanding work station ( 89 mg/m3 ) . This value was higher than the standard eight hr Time Weighted Average Maximum Exposure fixate for wood dust of 5mg/m3 ( FMR1989, HSE1999 ) , and hence the high air-borne wood dust concentration in the mills poses respiratory-related wellness lots.In footings of atom size distribution, this survey revealed that less than 25 % of the air-borne dust by weight at the two work Stationss were less than 10m. Hence, the emanation during consequences indicate that merely a little part of the air-borne wood dust atom is capable of perforating into the lower parts of respiratory system to do serious wellness jobs. However, this survey besides show that it is due to air-borne wood dust concentration, and non the wood dust atom size distribution that posses serious menaces to the respiratory system of workers in the Rubberwood furniture fabricating mills.Another survey did carried out was to measure air borne dust emanation ( 0.1-10m ) during the routing operation of Rubberwood ( Hevea Brasiliensis ) in the furniture industry in South East Asia. ( Ratnasingam et al. , 2009 ) . The emanation of airborne wood dust during the machining of Rubberwood ( Hevea Brasiliensis ) consequences in increased relative incidence of respiratory jobs and rhinal malignant neoplastic disease among workers in the South East Asiatic furniture industry ( Anon. , 2008 ) .Rubberwood ( Hevea Brasiliensis ) being the most of import natural stuff for the wooden furniture industry in the South East Asia part, in that locationfore the survey on the consequence of dust emanation during its machining are of import as to set up a benchmark for industrial wellness signpost for the Rubberwood processing industry in this part.The consequences showed airbor ne dust in the scope of 0.1-10m had the most grievous consequence on the wellness of workers. 68 % of the workers affirm as agony from some respiratory-related jobs after flipper old ages of reach out exposure. The experiments showed that the mean bit thickness has the greatest influence on dust coevals during the routing operation followed by wood wet content and rake angle. It is shown that airborne dust emanation during the routing procedure of Rubberwood could be minimized by aiming an mean bit thickness of 0.1mm, while maintaining the wet content in 12-14 % scope. These should remain as guidelines to minimise the airborne dust emanation, which in bend will cut down the wellness jeopardy posed by airborne dust to workers in Rubberwood furniture mills in South East Asia ( Ratnasingam et al. , 2009 ) .2.5 Human malignant neoplastic disease surveies of wood dustRecent surveies of wood dustIn December 2000, a study by U.S Department of Health and Human Services National Toxicity Program empower Report on Carcinogen for Wood Dust stated in its drumhead statement that Wood dust is known to be a human carcinogen, based on sufficient grounds of carcinogenicity from surveies in worlds. It has been demonstrate through human epidemiologic surveies that exposure to wood dust increases the happening of malignant neoplastic disease of the olfactory organ ( rhinal pits and paranasal fistulas ) .Strong and consistent associations with malignant neoplastic disease of the rhinal pits and paranasal pits were observed both for businesss associated with wood dust exposure and for straight estimated wood dust exposure. Hazards were highest for glandular cancer, and other types of nasal malignant neoplastic diseases ( squamous cell carcinoma of the rhinal pit ) and malignant neoplastic diseases at other sites, including the nasopharynx, the voice box, and Hodgin s disease have been associated with wood dust exposure in several epidemiologic surveies.The function of specifi c chemical constituents of the wood ( of course happening or exogenously added compounds ) in wood dust-induced carcinogenesis is ill-defined. The particulate nature of wood dust may besides lend to wood dust-associated carcinogenesis since dust generated by wood working typically consists of a high proportion of atoms that are deposited in the nasal cavity.Chronic exposure to wood dust particulates is associated with reduced mucociliary clearance and enhanced inflammatory reactions in the rhinal pit in some surveies in worlds. Additionally, cellular alterations ( metaplasia and dysplasia ) observed in the rhinal mucous membrane of wood workers and laboratory animate beings may stand for preneoplastic provinces.A survey on 4247 adult females employed in a Norse mush and paper factory for at least one twelvemonth between 1920 and 1993, superintendence their malignant neoplastic disease incidence from 1953 to 1993, supervising their malignant neoplastic disease incidence from 1952 to 1993. Compared with the national female population, adult females employed for at least tierce old ages in mush and paper work showed an ovarian malignant neoplastic disease standardized incidence ratio ( SIR ) of 1.6 ( 95 % CI = 1.1 to 2.3, 3.1 instances ) . Elevated SIRs were seen for lung malignant neoplastic disease and multiple myeloma in adult females with less than three old ages exposure, but non for longer exposures. No rhinal malignant neoplastic disease instances occured in the population. Wood dust exposure was non estimated straight, doing dose response hard to measure, and the survey s size limited its power for most results ( Langseth and Anderson et al. , 1999 )( Imos et al. , 2000 ) studied 3723 male and 3063 female workers employed at two furniture mills in Estonia from 1946 onward, followed through 1995 for incidence of malignant neoplastic disease. Workers were classified as holding low, medium, , or high strength of exposure based on employment records. Nasal consonant malignant neoplastic diseases were twice every bit common as expected, compared with the national population, but this was based on merely three instances ( all of which occured among extremely open workers. )The lone significantly elevated hazard rose with strength of exposure among adult females, but non among work forces incorporation of a 20-year latency premise stengthened the association. The usage of totl incidence alternatively of mortality, every bit good as consideration of strength of exposure and slowdown effects, were strenghts of this survey. However, the sample size limited the aptitude to observe elevated hazards of rarer malignant neoplastic diseases. In a survey conducted on genotoxicity of wood dust in a human embryotic lung cell line, utilizing cell civilization technique, a survey on comparative genotoxic activities of two difficult forests ( beech and oak ) and a soft wood ( pine ) a cell civilization with human lung cells.It is learn that among th e untreated forests processed in furniture industries, difficult forests, peculiarly beech and oak have been often venture to incorporate carcinogenic belongingss in their natural components. It has been shown that beech wood infusions induce weak mutants in bacteriums ( McGregor 1982 Mothashamipur et al. , 1986 ) , an enhanced figure of atomic abbreations in duodenal crypts of mice ( Mothashamipur and Norpoth. , 1989 ) , micronuclei in rhinal epithelial tissue of rats ( Nelson et al. , 1993 ) , and malignant tumours on mouse tegument ( Mothashamipur et al. , 1989 ) .Although occupational exposure to wood dust is encountered during all phases of wood processing, the comparatively higher hazard of developing malignant neoplastic disease is associated with the increased degree of wood dust in the ambiance ( Mothashamipur et al. , 1989b ) . However, the strongest associations of exposure to wood dust and malignant neoplastic disease development is observed in businesss where merely d ifficult forests but no additives are used ( Nylander and Dement. , 1993 ) . The consequences of the survey show that extracts of untreated difficult forests cost important chromosomal and chromatid interruptions in embryologic lung cells, but such a phenomenon was non observed with the deal. A farther comparative survey on DNA-strand interrupting effects of hardwoods ( beech, oak ) and a deal ( spruce ) has been done in vitro utilizing rat hepatocytes ( Schmezer et al. , 1994 ) .2.6 Surveies of malignant neoplastic disease in Experimental animate beingsCarcinogenicity of wood dust and wood additives in rates exposed by long term inspiration.In 1965, Macbeth reported on 20 patients with rhinal glandular cancers in the country of extravagantly Wycombe in England, of whom 15 had worked in the furniture industries. Between 1967 and 1972, more elaborate information was provided and in 1969, the tumours were acknowledge as occupational disease. Numerous epidemiological and toxicologica l surveies of the carcinogenic consequence of wood dusts were published, which fundamentally confirmed the consequences obtained in England. In 1985, oak and beech wood dusts were classified as carcinogenic to worlds by Senate military commission of the German Society for the promotion of Scientific Research ( Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft ) in Germany, and other wood dusts as suspected carcinogens. In 1999, hardwood dusts were classified as carcinogenic agents by the Commission of the European Union, on the footing of the IARC miscellany of the carcinogenic potency of wood dusts in 1995.A research under fetching was initiated to measure exposures happening in the wood industry consistently, and to understand better the manner of formation of glandular cancer of the olfactory organ. epidemiological surveies were excluded, as the figure of noxious agents was to a fault great, and neither employers nor workers know precisely what type of agents were used, although the type and a dditives such as varnish, discolorations, gums and wood preservatives that are used are known, frequently the pretreatment of the wood is unknown Long-run experiments in which animate beings were exposed to inspiration seemed to be a suited method, provided that the malignant neoplastic diseases observed in worlds could be induced in research lab animate beings under comparable conditions. As the Numberss of agents was excessively big for systematic proving in such experiments, short-run surveies of toxicity and genotoxicity were carried out to function as a footing for the design of long term experiments.Material used in the survey include Oakwood dust, because it is the most genotoxic of the wood tested the genotoxicity was tested with cyclohexane infusions. Wood preservatives incorporating lindane and pentachlorophenol ( PCP ) , because lindane was genotoxic in human nasal cells. Chromate is besides used, which is genotoxic, includes drawn-out rhinal clearance and, when used in wood preservatives, may take to dysplasia. Chromate has often been used in the wood-processing industry, peculiarly as K bichromate in discolorations but besides as a reconstruct agent in wood preservativesA group exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ) served as positive controls, because rats exposed to certain(prenominal) nitrosamines are known to develop tumours of the rhinal pit. Exposure and animate being handling were performed harmonizing to the German righteousness on the Protection of Animals. The exposure tracts of rats to wood dusts and wood preservatives are such that all the coops of all 7 experimental groups were rotated daily within their exposure boxes, harmonizing to a strategy documented for each group and twenty-four hours. When all exposed animate beings are considered together, the consequences go flush more pronounced. Fatal respiratory piece of land tumours occurred in the five of 155 animate beings exposed to oak wood ( P = 0.08, Fischer trial, when compared with the negative control ) , in five of 102 animate beings exposed to chromate ( P = 0.03 ) and in two of hundred and one animate beings exposed to lindane and PCP ( P = 0.17 ) while such tumours were non seen in the 96 negative controls.These measurings in the terminal do non allow a decision about the extent to which chromate histories for the effects associated with exposure to oak and beech wood dust or for the epidemiologically ascertained regional fluctuations in tumorigenesis. More wood types from different parts will hold to be analyzed for chromate and compared.2.7 Minimizing dust emanation by the usage of tool geometry.Dust created in the machining of wood is a major job in the on the job environment. Minute wood atoms carried through the air make a serious wellness jeopardy, in utmost instances even taking to malignant neoplastic disease. In wood working industries, it has proved a jeopardy to workers wellness, particularly in the signifier of malignant neoplast ic disease of the nasal and paranasal fistulas.A sum-up of probes of wood dust and the hazard of malignant neoplastic disease can be found in Nylander and Dement ( 1993 ) , where the writers states that secret agents in the wood working industry face a higher hazard of developing rhinal malignant neoplastic disease, particularly those working with machines that generate wood dust. An experimental survey did by J. Palmqvist et al. , 1999 on the influence of raw(a) informations and tool geometry in cut downing dust emanations at the beginning, that is at the tip of the tool.Method used on three different wood stuffs such as, pine, beech and fiberboard ( MDF ) . Specimens were processed in a miling machines where it was possible to change the film editing informations. The dust emanations from the tool ( defined here as atoms with a diameter less than 10m ) were measured. The parametric quantities altered in the experiments were moisture content of the wood, mean bit thickness, way of provender ( up or down ) and rake angle of the tool. The experiments showed that the mean bit thickness had the greatest influence on the sum of dust created when machining wood and wet content of the wood, a reasonably great influence, and while the way of the provender and and the profligate angle had small or no influence.The consequences show that dust emanations increase quickly when making a certain mean bit thickness. It is hence of import to cipher and argument the mean bit thickness in order to minimise the dust emanation between the three wood tested.2.8 Routers and Sanders safety jeopardiesRouters are used for such intents such as cutting and determining cosmetic pieces, doing frame and panel doors, and miling moldings.. The tool-spindle axis is normally perpendicular, but it may be tilted. The operator lowers the caput for machining, and the caput mechanically returns to its original place after the cut is made. Operators may be injured from accidental contact with the routing tool when managing stock or taking bit from the tabular ordinate. Kickback is some other common beginning of hurt among routers operators. Projections of tools can badly wound or kill router operators. machines can be flung from the cutter caput if they are ill fastened in the tool holder, if the incorrect tool is used, or if the tool velocity is excessively high ( A usher for protecting workers from woodworking jeopardies, 1999 )Router with Adjustable Tool Guard should be used to protect the routers from serious hurt that is caused by crisp instrument in knife vesica. Other that it, equip routers with a spindle braking system that bit by bit engages. In the average clip, some tips on safe work manikins such as properly attach and just toolsto the holder, and label cutting tool and holders with the maximal allowable spindle velocity. Drum sanders are people who finish stock by utilizing a coated scratchy surface to take stuff. A belt smoother uses a systems of blocks t o travel scratchy stuff accross the stock. Either the wood is fed manually or automatically into the machine or the sanding belt is pressed toward the wood, which is located on a working tabular array ( A usher for protecting workers from woodworking jeopardies, 1999 ) .Drum sanders produce quite a considerable measure of all right wood dust. All smoothers should be carefully ventilated. The primary safety jeopardies of belt smoothers us that workers may catch their custodies, vesture or jewellery in the running axial rotations. Safety work patterns should be to replace lacerate, frayed, or exessively worn belts or membranophones. A raddled belt, disc or membranophone can do a monolithic heat buildup, which can do the belt, disc or membranophone to rupture or interrupt and bombard the environing country with its projected spots. It is besides of import to maintain custodies off from scratchy surfaces and sand on the downward-moving side of the disc or belt. . ( A usher for protectin g workers from woodworking jeopardies, 1999 ) .Chapter 3 Methodology3.0 Entire dust appeal utilizing MiniVol Portable lineage Sampler.The MiniVol Air Sampler is an ambient air sampling station for particulate affair and non-reactive gas. The patented low flow engineering used in MiniVol was developed jointly by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) and the Lane Regional Air contaminant Authority in an attempt to turn to the demand for portable air pollution attempt engineering. MiniVol haps consequences show up about as in mention air quality informations. Both precise and accurate, the battery operated, whippersnapper MiniVol is ideal for trying at distant countries or station web. The MiniVol can be configured to try for a similar mention station web.In the particulate affair ( PM ) trying manner, air is drawn through a atom size centrifuge and so through a trickle medium. Particle size musical interval is achieved by impaction. Actual volumetric flow must be 5 l itres per minute ( 5 L/m ) at ambient conditions. Impactors are available with a 10-micron cut -point ( PM10 ) and a 2.5-micron cut-point ( PM2.5 ) . Operating the sampling station without an impactor allows for aggregation of entire suspended affair ( TSP ) . 2 unit of Minivol is used in this undertaking. Both theoretical account is taken to site and operated at 5 litres per minute. commencement exercise theoretical account of Minivol is situated sanding country where there were two sanding maestro machine and random orbital sanding procedure is taking topo interpretic point. Second theoretical account of Minivol is situated at country of where routing of wood is taking topographic point.This research was carried out in three workweeks in the month of November and December 2009. conglomeration suspended atom ( TSP ) was collected in this two station. The location to put the Minivol unit was chosen based on the work processes which produce more dust. First station, in routing pr ocedures, dust produced by the routing machines are coarser and more dust are collected by the spirit. In the 2nd station, wood sanding procedure by machines and manus is the work processes that were assessed. Sandpapering utilizing machines are done to smoothen the portion of furniture which is non even or to do the furniture finer in quality which make it a better market value.EquipmentSampler47-mm PVC, 2-5m pore size membrane or tantamount membrane perk and back uping tablet in 47mm cassette imbue holder.Minivol Air sampling stationMicrobalance, capable of weighing to 0.001mg.Forceps ( sooner nylon )Preparation of filters.Equilibrate the filters in an environmentally controlled weighing country or put up for at least 2 hours.Number the backup pads with a ballpen pen and topographic point them, numbered side down, in filter cassette layer subdivisions.Weight the filters in an environmentally controlled country or chamber. The filter tare weight are record, W1 ( mg ) .Zero th e balance forwards weighing.Manage the filters with forceps.Assemble the filter in the filter cassettes and close firmly so that the escape around the filter will non happen.SamplingCalibrate each Minivol unit with a representative sampling station in line.Sample at 5 L/min for a entire sample of 10 L. Do non transcend a entire filter burden of about 2 milligrams entire dust.Sample readyingWipe dust from the external surface of the filter cassette with a damp paper towel to minimise taint. Discard the paper towel.Remove the top and bottom stoppers from the filter gently to a void loss of dust.Calibration and Quality ControlZero the microbalance for weighing. Use the comparable microbalance for weighing filters before and after sample aggregation.MeasurementWeigh each filter. Record the station sampling weight, W2 ( milligram ) , in the air volume sampled. Record anything singular about the filter paper ( e.g. , overload, escape, wet torn, etc. )CalculationsCalculate the concentra tion of Entire dust particulate, C ( mg/m3 ) , in the air volume sampled, V ( L ) C = ( W2-W1 ) ( milligram ) Volt ( F1 + F2 ) x TV ( L )Time Leaden Average, TWANet dust weight ( milligram )=milligramFlow rate ( L/min ) x 0.001 ( m3/L ) ten clip ( min )M33.1 Respirable dust aggregation utilizing Personal Air Sampling Pump ( PASP )Respirable dust is the fraction of the entire dust that enters the gas supplant part of the lungs. 2 unit of personal sampling pump used on two specific workers that have lasting work displacement. The trying pump is worn on the neckband of the workers shirt, and is fastened by a limiter. Sampling pump that was used in this research is from the theoretical account Apex HB 3294-04. It uses an efficient stop pump whose flow rate is exactly maintained utilizing an automatic flow control circuit. The pump draws contaminated air through a sampling caput at a rate determined by the caput design or trying scheme.The Apex was developed to supply trying capableness s between 5 ml/min and 5 l/min, suited for a broad scope of applications including solvent exhausts, asbestos clearance and personal sampling of dusts. Apex pumps are ideally suited to many of the amount of money and Respirable dust trying techniques detailed in U.K Health and Safety Executive publication MDHS14, and in other mention methods. The trying pump is operated at 2.2 L/min for Higgins-Dewell cyclone, for 8 hr daily for three calendar weeks, from 8am to 5pm, working clip in the mill. The workers are chosen based on the wood processes that they do. The mill does non give its workers revolving occupation mundane, therefore it is easier to try on one individual for the whole twenty-four hours making the same work for an norm of 8 hours.Respirable dust is more of the sum of dust that enters the gas exchange part of the lung, therefore it is a really of import index of how the lung system can be affected by utilizing this instrument.EquipmentSampling stationFilter 5.0 m pore s ize, polyvinyl chloride filter or tantamount hydrophobic membrane filter supported by a cassette filter holderCyclone 10-mm nylon, Higgins-Dewell ( BGI Inc. , 58 Guinan St. Waltham, MA 02153 ) ( 7 ) or tantamount.Personal Sampling pump, 2.2 L/min + 5 % for HD cyclone with flexible linking tube.Balance, analytical with sensitiveness of 0.001mg.Forceps ( sooner nylon )Environmental chamber or room for balance.Preparation of filters.Equilibrate the filters in an environmentally controlled weighing country or chamber for at least 2 hours.Number the backup pads with a ballpen pen and topographic point them, numbered side down, in filter cassette bottom subdivisions.Weight the filters in an environmentally controlled country or chamber. The filter tare weight are record, W1 ( milligram ) .Zero the balance before weighing.Manage the filters with forceps.Assemble the filter in the filter cassettes and close firmly so that the escape around the filter will non happen.Remove the cyclone s gri t cap before usage and inspect the cyclone inside. If the interior is visibly scored, fling this cyclone since the dust separation features of the cyclone may be altered. Clean the inside of the cyclone to forestall entrainment of big atoms.Assemble the sampling station caput. Check compact of filter holder and cyclone in the trying caput to forestall escape.SamplingCalibrate each personal sampling pump to the appropriate flow rate with a representative sampling station in line.Sample 45 min to 8 hr. Make non transcend 5 mg dust lading on the filter.Sample readyingRemove the top and bottom stoppers from the filter cassette. Equilibrate 2 hr in an environment controlled country or chamber.Calibration and Quality ControlWeigh each filter. Record this post-sampling weight, W2 ( milligram ) .CalculationsCalculate the concentration of Entire dust particulate, C ( mg/m3 ) , in the air volume sampled, V ( L ) C = ( W2-W1 ) ( milligram ) Volt ( F1 + F2 ) x TV ( L )Time Leaden Average, TWAN et dust weight ( milligram )=milligramFlow rate ( L/min ) x 0.001 ( m3/L ) ten clip ( min )M33.2 Data Analysis.The consequences is analysed utilizing unaffiliated samples T-test on both Total dust value and Respirable dust value. The consequences informations collected for Entire dust and respirable dust in station 1 and station 2 concentration is besides analyzed utilizing Mann-Kendall Trend digest. Mann-Kendall tendency analysis is a non-parametric trial for indentifying tendency in clip series informations. The trial compares the comparative magnitudes of sample informations instead than the informations values themselves. ( Gilbert. , 1987 ) . One benefit of this trial is that the informations need non conform to any peculiar distribution. Furthermore, informations reported as non-detects can be included by delegating them a common value that is smaller than the smallest mensural value in the information set. The procedurethat will be described in the subsequent paragraphs ass umes that there dwells merely one informations valueper clip period. When multiple informations points exist for a individual clip period, the average value is used.3.3 Questionnaire on Occupational exposure to wood dust.The degree of exposure to wood dust is observed through a list of questionnaire to the estimated 30 % of entire workers in the mill. The study was distributed to 30 workers who work for full displacement of 8 working hours for the same everyday work procedures in the mill. Due to linguistic communication barrier among the workers from foreign states such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam and Indonesia, the questionnaire can merely be used through Bahasa Malaysia as the chief medium.The questionnaire distributed consisted of 3 parts, where first portion covers the personal information ( butir-butir peribadi ) of the workers such as the gender, age, weight, tallness, race and on the job clip. It besides covers on the past business of workers, how long have they work in t he current mill and in the yesteryear as good. Separate 2 screens on the past work topographic point status, the environmental scene in which they work, and besides the eating away of Personal Protective Equipment such as mask, safety boots, suited working dress, safety goggles.Part 3 screens their on the job status in their current work topographic point. Same inquiry as proposed to portion 2, but an add-on smoke wont during work clip, and besides current industrial pattern on the cleanliness of dust emanation. A sum of 30 questionnaire were distributed to the workers involved in the mill chosen by choosing workers that are straight involved in this survey, that is routing and sanding procedures. Consequences from respondent are utilizing an analytical tool called Statistical encase for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) version 126.96.36.199 Location of surveyThis survey is carried out in Muar which is The town of Muar is located at 23?N10234?E, at the oral cavity of the Muar River. The town is about 150 kilometers ( 93 stat mis ) southeastern United States of Malaysia s capitalKuala Lumpur, and about the same distance ( 179 kilometer ) newtonwest ofSingapore. It is 45km south ofMalacca Town. It is besides 50 kilometers north ofBatu Pahat.Beginning www.maps.google.com.my Figure 3.1 Location of Muar, Johor.The mill is located at Parit Jamil industrial zone, Muar. There are 100 workers in production line based in the mill, where 60 % are foreign workers coming from Vietnam, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar and topical anesthetic Malaysian. The mill operates from Monday to Saturday except for public vacations and Sunday. There are 5 section including Management squad where all the wood is process by modeling, determining, routing to finally do out a all right quality furniture. Below are some of the figures of wood procedures that are done in the mill.Chapter 4 Consequence AND DISCUSSION4.0 self-directed samples T-test on Total dust for sanding and routing.The sum s uspended atoms informations collected for routing and sanding procedures in the two Stationss was analyzed utilizing SPSS for freelancer samples T-test on Total dust for the two nonsymbiotic variables, sanding and routing. The chief intent of running the information utilizing T-test is tests the significance of the difference between the two sample agencies.HypothesissNothing the mean of two group are non significantly differentSurrogate the agencies of the two group are significantly differentT-TestBased on Table 4.1, the average value of 1.6645mg/m3 for sanding procedures is higher than 1.5051mg/m3 from routing procedures. This means that on norm, sanding procedure output higher entire dust concentration than routing procedure in 17 workers from both Stationss. Therefore based on the average consequences, the void hypotheses is owned.Table 4.1 multitude statistics for Total hang up Particles in sanding and routing.StationNitrogenMeanStandard DeviationStandard Error MeanSum Su spended AtomsRouting171.5051.92566.22451Sandpapering171.6645.74017.17952T-Test for Total suspended atoms. expound1 Sanding and routing procedures have about equal discrepancy on the dependent variables.2 Sanding and routing procedures are independent on one another.Based on Table 4.2 The consequences for Levene s trial for equality of discrepancy is that we accept our first premise that is sanding and routing procedures have about equal discrepancy because the value of significance is 0.557 which is greater than 0.05. Therefore the two discrepancy value is non significantly different.Table 4.2 Levene s Test for equality of discrepancies for Total Suspended Particles.Levene s Test for Equality of DiscrepanciesFSig.Sum Suspended AtomsEqual discrepancies assumed.353.557Equal discrepancies non assumedFrom the Table 4.3, Independent samples of t-test shown in equal discrepancies assumed from Levene s trial, it can be conclude from the t value of -0.555 with grade of freedom 32, at import ant degree of 0.05, there is no important difference between the sanding and routing procedures. The sum of Entire dust produced in the sanding procedure is non significantly different from entire dust from routing procedure. Entire dust is collected from the dust that has accumulated in the ambient air, so it can non be measured specifically from which beginning the dust is coming from. wind way, comparative humidness and different work undertaking done in same station may impact the motion of this all right dust atoms traveling approximately in the air.Table 4.3 Independent samples t-test for Total Suspended Particlest-test for Equality of MeansTdfSig.( 2-tailed )Average DifferenceSum Suspended AtomsEqual discrepancies assumed-.55532.583-.15941Equal discrepancies non assumed-.55530.523.583-.159414.1 Independent Samples T-test on Respirable dust for sanding and routing.Based on table 4.4, the average value of 4.4865 for sanding procedures is higher than 2.7509 from routing procedu res. This mean on norm, repirable dust on workers is higher in the sanding processes than routing procedures.Table 4.4 Group statistics for respirable dust on sanding and routing procedure.PersonNitrogenMeanStandard DeviationStandard Error MeanRespirableSandpapering174.48651.83743.44564Routing172.7509.81998.19887Based on table 4.5, for respirable dust, the two groups that is sanding and routing has about equal discrepancy for the two dependent variables. And the consequence shows that the important value is greater than 0.05 which is 0.260 which means that they are non significantly different.Table 4.5 Levene s Test for equality of discrepancies for Respirable dustLevene s Test for Equality of DiscrepanciesFSig.RespirableEqual discrepancies assumed1.316.260Equal discrepancies non assumedIn table 4.6, through Levene s trial that the discrepancies are about equal, t value of 3.557 with 32 grade of freedom, at 0.05 important degree, it shows that there is important different in the sum of repirable dust from routing and sanding procedure. Respirable dust is the sum of dust measured in the take a breathing zone of the workers, which means it can mensurate the sum of dust that is inhaled into the lung by take a breathing the air indoors. This is an of import indicant to demo how much different wood working procedure produces different consequence on workers.Table 4.6 Independent samples t-test for Respirable dustt-test for Equality of MeansTdfSig. ( 2-tailed )Average DifferenceStd. Error DifferenceRespirabledustEqual discrepancies assumed3.55732.0011.73559.48800Equal discrepancies non assumed3.55722.130.0021.73559.488004.2 Mann-Kendall Trend analysis of entire dust.Wood dust informations collected during 3 workweeks of monitoring is divided into two Stationss of wood procedure, that is wood sanding and routing procedure. The entire dust collected for 3 hebdomads is tested to see the correlativity between the clip puting and variables for sanding and routing proce dure.Based on table 4.7, the Mann-Kendall tau correlativity coefficient is 0.603. This positive value show an increasing tendency to Total dust value for sanding station.Table 4.7 Mann Kendall analysis for correlativity trial entire dust station1.Kendall s tau Correlation TestUS Geological Survey, 2005Datas set cause Totaldust values Mann-Kendall trial, stimulant type 4The tau correlativity coefficient is 0.603S = 82.omega = 3.337P = 0.0008The relation may be described by the compareY = 0.43264 + 0.1206 * TenTo back up this consequence, based on figure 4.1, it can be seen that there is a important addition for the 2nd hebdomad ( 14th Dec to 19th Dec 09 ) during this clip period, the concentration of entire dust rise from 1.995 mg/m3 to 2.175mg/m3 ) . For the undermentioned hebdomad, 21st Dec 09 to 26th Dec 09, there is a crisp addition in twenty-four hours 4 of reading, on the 23rd Dec 09, the value recorded was 3.804 mg/m3. This unusual reading may come as a consequence of the air current velocity, weave way and sum of wood being sanded throughout the twenty-four hours.There is a lessening of 2.286 mg/m3 for the last two twenty-four hours of monitoring. The sums of wood dust concentration have moderate due to alter in air current velocity and comparative humidness in the ambiance. heights value of comparative humidness can do the air going more concentrated with the dust atoms and when the air current blows, it carries the dust around the ambient air inside the mill. Another factor that contributes to the high emanation of dust in the sanding procedure at station 1 in the 3rd hebdomad of monitoring is due to the usage of machines particularly the usage of two sanding maestro machine which is operated at different velocity and due to the different sum of dust generated by different wood usage, its difficult to command the emanation of dust manually by utilizing vacuity or brushing the floor. This may therefore even do the work topographic point dustier a nd difficult to maintain it clean.Based on table 4.8 the Mann-Kendall tau correlativity coefficient is 0.691. This positive value shows an increasing tendency for entire dust in station 2. Meanwhile, at 0.05 assurance interval, chance of 0.0001 which means there is important difference in the value of wood dust in station 2 reading every bit good.Table 4.8 Mann Kendall analysis for correlativity trial on Entire dust station 2Kendall s tau Correlation TestUS Geological Survey, 2005Datas set Example Totaldust values Mann-Kendall trial, input type 4The tau correlativity coefficient is 0.691S = 94.omega = 3.831P = 0.0001The relation may be described by the equationY = 0.74132 + 0.1287 *TenThe graph shown in Figure 4.2 is monitored in station 2. The graph shows a positive increase in hebdomad 1, hebdomad 2 and hebdomad 3 of monitoring. In hebdomad 1, the value of entire dust does non increase significantly but on hebdomad 2, there were steadily increase over the whole hebdomad and this form continue until hebdomad 3 where the highest reading is on the 22nd Dec 09, 2.270 mg/m3. The lowest value was recorded in 18th Nov 09 where the reading is 0.561 mg/m3.The consequence shown in the graph examine to Figure 1 is non as important in station 1.This is because at station 2, the entire dust concentration in the ambient air is affected by the usage of operating expense yell system where it is used to hoover out all the dust generated by machines and in each compartment, there are besides less dust accumulated throughout the work topographic point.4.3 Mann-Kendall tendency analysis on respirable dust.Table 4.9 shows the consequence end product for respirable dust on electrical orbital sanding procedure. The tau correlativity coefficient is 0.463 and this suggests that there is a positive increasing tendency shown in orbital sanding.Table 4.9 Mann Kendall analysis for Respirable dust on wood sanding procedure.Kendall s tau Correlation TestEssay compose Service Fully r eferenced, delivered on clip, Essay Writing Service.Assignment Writing Service Everything we do is focussed on composing the best possible assignment for your exact demandsTaging Service Our Marking Service will assist you pick out the countries of your work that need betterment.View our servicesFree APA Referencing Tool take a crap your 6th Edition APA mentions rapidly, easy and for freeFree Harvard Referencing Tool Our free online Harvard Referencing Tool makes citing easy.Free Vancouver Referencing Tool limit aid with your Vancouver referencing with our free online tool.Free Study Guides Everything you need to cognize during your surveiesTopographic point an order now Our experts are wait to assist you with your essayOur experts can assist you with your essay inquiryGet down your orderNo thanksRequest RemovalIf you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to hold the essay published on the UK Essays web site so please chink on the nexus below to bespeak remoti onRequest the remotion of this essay