Saturday, August 31, 2019
In 2002, JP Morgan signed a seven-year outsourcing arrangement with IBM, worth 5 billion dollars. This deal included data centres, help desks, distributed computing, and data and voice networks. JP Morgan viewed this agreement with IBM as a competitive advantage that would serve as a platform for efficient growth and innovation. It was an attempt to further enhance the performance of the company, while reducing their costs. However, two years later, JP Morgan announced the premature ending of their contract. JP Morgan ended the outsourcing deal with IBM, claiming that it caused technological stagnation in their operations.Apparently, IBM refused to take on tasks without additional charge, particularly necessary improvements to the system. This structure lengthened certain procedures, and as result, projects sat idle and processes were stalled. Another reason behind the deal cancellation was internal organizational changes. JP Morgan merged with Bank One, which has cancelled a similar deal with IBM a few years earlier. With the combined resources and technology of the banks, management reassessed its capability of managing its core information systems, and realized that the IBM deal was no longer necessary.JP Morgan Chase and Co. wanted to leverage on the assets it acquired from Bank One, including a $500 million investment in data centers. Also, ending the deal would mean saving the margins paid on hardware and software purchased through IBM, as the size of the newly merged bank would enable it to negotiate better bargains with suppliers Ã¢â¬â JP Morgan Chase and Co. , after that time, emerged as the second largest financial conglomerate next to Citigroup. Analysts believed that the primary catalyst for the back sourcing was the change in leadership.Many of the key officers of Bank One took over JP Morgan Chase and Co. by holding the same positions that they had in the former. Some of these were CEO James Dimon and CIO Adam Austin. As emphasized by Austin, t he new management wanted to have greater involvement in every aspect of their business, and IT is an important part of it. In fact, Dimon, being in the industry for years, had made a reputation of investing in internal strategies, which explains why experts were not really surprised by the premature death of the IBM contract. ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUEGiven the different scenarios that happened, it is necessary to focus on the impact of the outsourcing and backsourcing deals of the company, and deducing which arrangement is better for the company. The Impact of Outsourcing JP Morgan ChaseÃ¢â¬â¢s contract with IBM is said to be one of the largest outsourcing deal on record. However, this 5 billion-worth of contract was only in its second year when JP Morgan opted to end its supposed-to-be-7-years relationship with IBM. Apparently, the outsourcing deal hugely affected the operations of the company.First of all, outsourcing had a negative impact on the effectiveness on some key processes of the bank. Things that used to get done no longer got done. In just a short span of time, instead of improving the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity, the outsourcing deal had caused so much delay. Among the projects not getting done were server migrations, data center upgrades, and network patches. Corollary to that, even in office supply procurement, there were also delays. It even reached the point where project managers had to go and buy their own reams of paper.Secondly, there were vague contract details in the agreement between JP Morgan and IBM. As a result, whenever there is a need to make improvements and updates, IBM had to charge extra fees to the bank. Thus, every additional improvement in the system entailed additional costs. Because of the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s resistance to pay for extra but often necessary improvements, JP MorganÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation and efficiency in its information technology was compromised. Thirdly, to implement the outsourcing deal, JP Morgan had to lay off 4000 employees, which lead to a drop in employee morale.With the loss of job security, employees lost their trust in management. Employees refused to commit to any project, and started to slack off. As a result, a lot of work were not getting done, which led to a decrease in the productivity of the company. The Impact of Backsourcing In the light of the shortcomings of the outsourcing deal and the implications of the merger with Bank One, JP Morgan opted to backsource. Bringing their IT back in-house also had huge effects in the company. Firstly, employee morale remained low. Many were resentful that the reasons why management outsourced- i. e. o gain competitive advantage, to improve efficiency, and to accelerate innovation- were also the reasons why they backsourced. As a result, they lost trust in the honesty and soundness of managementÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment. Job security was still an issue, as more layoffs occurred, not only because of the backsourcing arrangement, but also because of the merger of the two banks. Some employees reapplied for their jobs, but were paid with less than 20% of their original salaries. With such a low morale, productivity in the company dropped, employees were reluctant to commit to projects, and more work piled up.Secondly, the company spent twice the cost of reorganization: that is, they had a huge capital outlay to support an outsourcing deal, then incurred another set of expenditures to reverse those actions and set up a backsourced environment. Outsourcing costs incurred by JP Morgan are mainly due to the huge consultation fees for process reengineering. They also invested in counselling and retention bonuses to retain the employees through the transition period. As JP Morgan backsourced IT, they incurred huge losses for prematurely ending the contract.Moreover, the changes made in outsourcing were done all over again in reverse. With that, they had to spend twice for the costs of reorganization. They had to re establish all t heir systems, staffs, operating procedures, organizational structure, and corporate strategies. Fortunately, JP Morgan was able to capitalize on the $1 billion investment of BankOne in its own information system. Finally, in moving from an outsourcing deal to a backsourced environment, JP Morgan had to deal with organizational disruption. Management had to reengineer their processes and make huge readjustments in their systems and operations.Organizational responsibilities were redefined, and management completely reversed how things were done. Outsourcing Vs Backsourcing When JP Morgan prematurely ended their contract with IBM, the CEO said, Ã¢â¬Å"We believe managing our own technology infrastructure is best for the long-term growth and success of our company, as well as our shareholders. Our new capabilities will give us competitive advantages, accelerate innovation, and enable us to become more streamlined and efficient. Ã¢â¬ However, these were the same reasons that manageme nt gave when they entered the outsourcing deal.So the question is: which would provide greater benefits for the company Ã¢â¬â outsourced operations, or a backsourced environment? The main reason why companies outsource is to be able to focus on their core activities. Many businesses have generic functions such as phone reception and customer service. When these generic functions are outsourced, companies may focus on their key processes. Outsourcing would also lead to efficiency and cost savings, as overhead expenditure are reduced. Outsourcing can also provide operational control as poorly managed functions are provided by companies like IBM who are better in these areas.However, according to the studies of Deloitte Consulting, 70 percent of companies that outsource report significant negative experiences with their outsourcing projects. Apparently, outsourcing has a number of limitations and weaknesses. The most common issue is the loss of control when the management of certain functions is turned over to another company. The outsourcing company may lose the ability to adapt to a rapidly changing environment. Additionally, the quality of the service provided may not meet expectations, because the service provider is not driven by the same standards as its outsourcer.Service providers simply aim to meet the conditions of the contract, and not necessarily strive to provide the needs of the outsourcing company. Consequently, outsourcers incur more costs as they modify the terms of the contract, or as they settle for an inadequate system. With the said problems of outsourcing, companies may resort to backsourcing their operations. Nonetheless, in the aforementioned study by Deloitte Consulting, only 25 percent of the companies that had problems with outsourcing brought IT back in-house.The difficulty in backsourcing can be traced to the high costs of reorganization and the organizational disruption during the transition period. However there are a numerous be nefits of having an in-house system. Firstly, management would have complete control in their operations. This leads to greater flexibility, since changes in operations could be implemented more easily. Secondly, management could also control the quality of the operational functions of the company, by setting their standards of performance in their workforce.Finally, they would be able to avoid the need for ongoing renegotiations and the high recurring costs of modifications. The decision whether to outsource or insource should mainly depend on the processes of a company. Organizations may outsource processes that do not fall under their main competencies, or non-core processes that consumes much of their resources. This would save them time, effort, and manpower, while enabling management to focus on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and core operations. On the other hand, it may be more advantageous to insource specialized processes that are impractical to outsource like Research and Development.Moreover, as in the case of JP Morgan, it is better to insource because the company can actually provide better services at lower costs in-house, with the facilities of the acquired bank Ã¢â¬â Bank One Ã¢â¬â readily available for JP MorganÃ¢â¬â¢s use. PHILIPPINE SETTING A similar case in the Philippines is the agreement between Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) and International Business Machines (IBM). In 2004, GSIS began migrating to a new computerized system, with an IBM DB2 software designed to manage all data pertaining to membersÃ¢â¬â¢ and pensioners accounts.GSIS claimed that it spent around P40 million for the DB2 software and IBM P-series servers. Unfortunately, in March and April 2009, the database software encountered a problem with the pension firmÃ¢â¬â¢s Integrated Loans, Membership, Acquired Assets and Accounts Management System (ILMAAAMS). The ILMAAAMS, which ran on IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s DB2 database software, reportedly crashed because of the vast amount of transactions made by GSIS members, composed of about 1. 5 million government employees and 200,000 pensioners. This translates to about 3 million records on file coming from 8,000 agencies nationwide, simultaneously.According to GSIS, about 90% of its operations were adversely affected by the crash, which resulted to approximately Php5 billion in actual damages. The company blamed IBM for the disruptions, accusing the latter of supplying defective database software. GSIS filed a Php100 million legal case against IBM Philippines, who in turn filed a Php200 million libel suit against the GSIS for its series of negative advertisements against them, both in print and broadcast media. In November 2009, GSIS started migrating to the HP Ã¢â¬â Oracle System and was able to complete the process in just six weeks.At present, the legal war between GSIS and IBM continues. Recommendations: Outsourcing is a double edge sword. It could either benefit a company or it can also cos t that company a lot. Thus, many things need to be considered in choosing between outsourcing and the more traditional in-sourcing. Therefore, the situation of JP Morgan Chase and Co. could have gone on a better way if they just prepared and improved on certain aspects as follows: The negotiations with IBM should have contained certain terms which could possibly mitigate the risks involved in their contract.First, the contract negotiations should have had clarified the terms and limitations of both parties. Having clearer terms and limitations will help both parties adjust to different situations and formulate the right solutions to the problems that may arise. There should also be better preparation, a set plan of action and a ready exit strategy. Also, JP Morgan Chase and Co. should have asked for flexibility in the technology, the outsourcing partner uses. They should have specified that the process or technology should fit or, at the very least, work hand in hand with the busine ssÃ¢â¬â¢s existing processes.There should also be a stipulation regarding review points to allow the relationship to change or end. JP Morgan Chase and Co. should consider that contracts have shared elements of both risk and reward. Greater risks entail more rewards precisely why JP Morgan should strike a balance between these two. It should perform different analysis tools in order to weigh alternatives more accurately. This, in turn, will help the company decide what projects to perform and which deals to enter. For example in the case of JP Morgan, short-term outsourcing contracts benefit the company better than long-term contracts.In some cases, it could be a good mix of short-term and long-term contracts as determined by the nature of the contract that will provide the best rewards for the company. Essentially, it is a matter of being able to correctly judge and weigh alternatives that will yield the best results. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Finally, the company should learn how to value its most important asset, the people. It should have been more honest and open with the employees about matters affecting the situation and condition of the company.Being the most important asset of the company, human capital or employees should have been more involved in instances like this. As a summary, the following are the key points to be remembered from the JP Morgan and Chase experience: 1. For financial intermediaries in particular, outsourcing is not recommended. Outsourcing was a trend for many industries, especially in late 80Ã¢â¬â¢s until the early 90Ã¢â¬â¢s. This provides organizations the chance to concentrate on their core competencies by having their IT functions off shored.Much of the stories with regard to this business trend were written on the earlier years of the deal, stories on the implementation years however, remain scarce. A company has to consider how it will ultimately affect its operations before jumping in the outsourcing bandwagon. Financial intermediaries in particular would be better off without outsourcing as the latter adversely affects performance of the company, particularly its capability to innovate and be efficient which takes a toll on the totality of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. 2.Backsourcing is not for everyone. In a company where the latest data are the most crucial, it is recommended for them to keep their IT functions in house, especially in the case of JPMC where they had all necessary infrastructures ready for their IT functions. Departmental functions once outsource will incur twice the expenses if brought back once again to the company. Backsourcing is not a one size fits all solution rather it depends on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s available resources that determines its capability to bring in the IT functions again. 3. Negotiate shorter dealsShorter deals promote flexibility which proves to be the most important factor missing in the JPMC situation. Albeit more expensive, this provides companies less expensive solutions and exit strategies in case deals go awry. 4. Always remember the value of employees The outsourcing and insourcing juggle brought down the morale of many of the employees. What the company failed to see was the fact that this constituted much of the intangible costs incurred. 5. Remember to weigh alternatives carefully. Organizations often overlook or ignore the relationship between cost and quality of service.The relationship is a simple one. If you want to differentiate your IT service, provide the highest quality service and the highest quality products, it generally costs more. If the decision is IT costs too much, it is relatively straightforward to reduce IT costs, but commensurately you also reduce service. Ã¢â¬ (Hirschiem, 1998) Higher expectations, particularly in IT lead to higher costs. More than just following the current trends in t he industry, determining what to do with departmental functions involve planning and weighing alternatives carefully.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The supposed angel in the story A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings by Gabriel Garcia Marquez differs from the usual conception of angels with the following characteristics: its physical appearance, its effect upon the community, and the paranormal occurrences of its presence. The usual conception on the images of angels are romanticized Ã¢â¬â images of blonde children with small, white wings and rosy cheeks. However, the Ã¢â¬ËangelÃ¢â¬â¢ in MarquezÃ¢â¬â¢s story is described as an old man, dirty, smelly, and possesses rotting wings. Ã¢â¬Å"He was dressed like a ragpicker. There were only a few faded hairs left on his bald skull and very few teeth in his mouth, and his pitiful condition of a drenched great-grandfather had taken away any sense of grandeur he might have had. His huge buzzard wings, dirty and half-plucked, were forever tangled in mudÃ¢â¬ (Marquez, 387). In addition, the use of the word Ã¢â¬ËenormousÃ¢â¬â¢ used to described the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s wings are strewn with mud and rotting, full of small insects and parasites. The characters in the story immediately perceive the old man to be a fallen angel, because of the state of his wings. Also, the enormity of the wings give emphasis on Marquez use of the magic realism genre in the story. The shape and size of the wings may be exaggerated in a realistic point of view but the use of enormous gives the reader a more realistic approach to the old man. It also presents an ordinary experience on part of the characters Ã¢â¬â since Pelayo and Elisenda did not express shock of the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance but of his condition Ã¢â¬â lying in the mud and in a downcast state. As the story revolves on the theme of magical realism, the characters in the story do not express shock over the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance. They exhibit behaviour as though they see kinds of magical creatures often in their lives. Indeed, the first reaction of the couple is more a contradiction toward the whole theme of the story Ã¢â¬â a realistic perspective. They deduced that the old man may be a castaway from a ship across the sea that was wrecked by some storm. They based their judgement when they tried to ask the old man and responded in a strong sailorÃ¢â¬â¢s voice with a foreign dialect. However, the couple was not convinced and decided to ask a woman who had experience with such matters. The old woman needed only a glance and immediately concluded that the old man was an angel sent to take the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s ailing child (Marquez, 388). Thus, the themes of magic and realism come together from different point of views. The old manÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on the community, upon hearing the suggestion of the old woman, also became magical in one point. As exhibited by the behaviour of the townspeople in the story, they immediately associate the angel with various miracles and scenarios Ã¢â¬â that the angel was sent to be the leader of the world, to be a five star general in order to end wars, and such. The angel is also viewed by the community not as a supernatural creature but rather as a circus animal. After all the commotion the old man brought to the community, the couple decided to charge a fee for everybody who wanted to see the angel. Its popularity declined when a circus act visited the town with a spider-lady as its main attraction. The people favored the spider-woman over the angel as the spider had a personal story on why she turned to such while the angel did nothing but sit on the chicken coop. Marquez presents an alternative conception of the angel Ã¢â¬â that the spider, with all its grotesquery and exhibiting usual emotions like pain and emotional suffering, greatly amused the people rather than an old, mute angel rotting in its place. People favored amusement, even if the object is supernatural in nature. Apart from this, Marquez presents the angel to be a mere object of interest for only a limited time until the townspeople shifted their attention toward the spider. Angels are often regarded to be holy beings, that are capable of miracles, and provides Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. But the angel in the story remains isolated from the community and only act as though he had no care of his condition. His characteristics were also a downfall toward the perception of the community Ã¢â¬â he was old, toothless, with rotting wings and a pronounced stench. Even though the old man was first conceived as an angel, people did not pay the same amount of attention compared to the spider-woman, who exhibited an emotional plight that greatly amused the people. The paranormal presence of the angel did not stir bewilderment on the characters of the story Ã¢â¬â instead they presented keen interest and ill-disguised curiosity. Also, their immediate association of the old man as a universal solution to all their worldly-problems became the definitive character of the angel. Yet, they did not bother to place the angel in greater prominence, as they ignored him until one day, he grew new wings and began to fly toward the ocean horizon. The disappearance of the angel also coincided with the growth of Pelayo and ElisendaÃ¢â¬â¢s child, and deduced that the angel took away the childÃ¢â¬â¢s sickness. And because of the fee they charged to see the angel, the couple became rich from their profits. Marquez persuades the reader into a personal interpretation of the old man Ã¢â¬â just like the people in the story. He presents the old man with its characteristics and it is up to the reader to decide whether it is an angel or not. However, Marquez also utilizes several peculiar situations and characteristics that coincide with the angelÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in the story. His enormous wings is the main point. It appears as though it was nothing out of the extraordinary; that the characters in the story were accustomed to seeing wings deeply implanted in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s structure. Also, as the angel grew another set of wings, it could have been assumed that it would resemble the pearly-white color of a real angel but the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s wings were that of a scarecrow (Marquez, 392). Marquez leaves room for interpretation on the part of the reader as to what the old man really is. He presents a wholly different perspective of an angel, as presented by the examples of the people in which the old revolved upon. It may be an angel or just an old, toothless man with enormous wings.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Palm Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model - Essay Example Thus managing large organizations which comprises of thousands of individuals and numerous groups is a mind boggling issue. This project tries to explore the performance and outputs of Palm Inc. and the way it operates to achieve its goals. The performance is measured at three different levels, organizational level, group level and individual level. Finally the project seeks to identify if the interactions of these outputs are congruent and whether the congruency is high, medium or low. Performance Analysis at three levels Organizational Level The major goal of the company is to design and create the latest technology that helps to attain the highest productivity. The company undertakes extensive research on the emergent merging technologies which enabled people to work in a comfortable and portable manner and while on move. The company uses its high end technological research and expertise for designing of the portable electronics, which are compatible, fast and better for offering their clients the convenience, speed and also compatibility. The products include computer like enhanced features which enables clients to use them with their computers or for performing computer-based functions. Such products can be considered to be organizational outputs of Palm. However, it must be noted that the company uses its research groups extensively for production and creation of such technologies. This also involves individual output of efforts of each and every person who are involved within the functional groups charged with design and production. The group design and research of electronics and also the accompanying software is considered to be one of the greatest group outputs from Palm Inc. (Nadler, Tushman & Hatvany, 2007, p.3). Group Level The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s research groups are worth mentioning in this context. Palm Inc. employs extensive functional groups for attaining its goals and objectives. There are about 65,000 developers who are involved with the company and works on companyÃ¢â¬â¢s software applications. The research work and development activities which have gone into the functioning of the organization have been effective in increasing its output by about ten times within a span of one year. Palm also intends to increase the number of users of its products by a large extent. In order to achieve this purpose a huge sales force is used for the same. Palm intends to increase its number of users from 6 million by more than 75% of the market. Palm also uses selling mediums like the internet, wireless channels, online stores etc. (Palm-a, 2010).This would amount to more than 60 million numbers of users. In order to make this possible the company has employed a large sales team which is responsible for developing and expanding the present market (Info World, 2000, p.77). The company has also aligned with the leading providers of the mobile field sales solutions (Palm, 2000, p.1). Palm was able to ship a total amount of 823,000 smart p hones units during the first quarter of 2010, which represented a 134% increase from the last quarter of fiscal year of 2009. Individual Level One of the primary requirements of the company would be an experienced research team which would focus on the creation of advanced level technologies and solutions to cater the userÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements. Moreover, a sales team would responsible for expanding on the present market of the company. Most importantly the team of software engineers and developers
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
WAVE AND TIDAL POWER - Assignment Example tilizing wind energy through on-shore and off-shore wind farms has been one of the rapid growing kinds of renewable energy in the past decade (Avato at al. 56). In order to harness the wave and tidal energy, there is a need for a specific design and manufacture of efficient equipment to exploit natural energy flows. One challenge in the field is the up-front investment which is huge although the fuel may be free and the waste products low. The efficiency of designs put in place is determined by the distance they are placed from shore which could either be shoreline, offshore or near-shore. Planning and permitting are very essential in deploying tidal/wave energy technology because there are issues like environmental, health and safety issues and other sea user disputes. In terms of products, services chains and infrastructure need to be in place to enhance competition and avoid shortages (Elghali, Benbouzid and Charpentier 1407-1412). This implies that the percentage rate of change in carbon dioxide emissions is equal to the rate of change in carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy plus the rate of change in energy essentials per unit output plus the rate of change in output per capital plus the rate of change in the population. For most developing countries, emissions are higher unless energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions per unit energy change to offset growth in per capita output and population. The developing countries with fast growing populations, pressure for economic growth will make it inconvenient to direct capital on investments with maximum greenhouse gas emissions compared to those with lower greenhouse gas emissions (Bruce 27). Population is not considered in policy debates on climate changes, and studies in the past ten years have added significant to comprehending the complexity and mechanisms of population and climate interactions. Moreover, the development total population size, study indicate that changes in population make-up
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Employee Relations - Essay Example This essay will look at the effects of law and management in various organisations in the modern society. In every organisation, there are different types of managers who have their own styles of leadership. This is what makes production of goods and services in these institutions different. Organisations may be dealing with the same line of production, but it is clear that there are those that have more clients compared to others. Some have the right number of employees in the company to run daily operations, but some cannot achieve their goals because of lack of labour supply. This essay will therefore look at management and law in the employment sector, looking at how employees should be handled, how they work in a stress-free environment and how they relate with their superiors at work. It will generally look at environment at work and how laws should be implemented to make certain that production of goods and services is done effectively. In his article, Middlemiss points out th at in most institutions, organisational psychologists have always defined and characterised employment correlation in terms of psychological deal. This has been the trend for over 40 years, and within the same period, judges have through their decisions, set terms that are applicable to all employment contracts. Commentators on the other hand have analysed these terms in substantial details drawn from both practitioner and academic backgrounds. In this article Middlemiss particularly aims at analysing the nature and significance of the notion of psychological indenture and takes into consideration its application in the notion of the most significant implied terms in the employment contract (Middlemiss 2011: 42). Middlemiss wrote his article from a review of secondary basis of the two subjects covered. In this article, therefore, he explains the employment relationship and the contract of employment. The two subjects have a common purpose in a way, and Misslemiss goes ahead to expla in more about their potential and roles for combined deployment in the place of work. This article is significant as the context in it entails the nature and effects of two contractual forms that control correlation in the employment sector. This clearly shows the methodology used by many organisations to undertake their operations and how the employees are handled to ensure that they all have a favourable environment to work in. According to Middlemiss, both psychological and contractual terms have effects on the employment sector in every organisation. The psychological contract is somehow problematic as it is derived from notions from various researchers which make it difficult to be defined. In this case, it is hard to undertake organisational operations using this contractual terms because they are derived from other sources. Implied contractual terms, on the other hand, are easier to use in an organisation as they are formed by the internal managerial staff. It is easier to wo rk with such terms because they are internally formed, and no ideas are borrowed. With this type of contractual terms, it is possible to undertake operations easily without inconveniences as they are decisions that are made within the organisation. Though they both have effects on employment laws, the difference is that implied terms are from within the organi
Monday, August 26, 2019
United States History - Great Depression Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6750 words
United States History - Great Depression - Essay Example This essay focuses on the Great Depression that mostly unnerved African Americans in south. Faced with the double burden of racism and Depression - induced poverty, black people struggled to survive. Because blacks were disproportionately employed in the service sector, they were particularly vulnerable to the economic crisis that forced even well-to-do residents to scale back on luxuries like keeping servants, dining out, and traveling by rail. Blacks dared to hope for progress not perfection and the intermixture of symbolic and substantive assistance, of rhetoric and recognition, swelled further hope in the formerly disheartened. Despite the fact that little had changed for the better in the concrete aspects of life for most black southerners, a belief that "we are on our way" took root. Blacks associated the New Deal with it, and idolized Franklin D. Roosevelt for it. Given the heritage of racism they credited the New Deal with establishing government precedents favorable to black s, with making civil rights a part of the national liberal agenda, with generating reform and, as never before in our nation's history, propounding the federal government's responsibility in race relations. These changes that were analyzed in the essay did little to ameliorate the continuity of racism staining the New Deal, but they would help transform the despair, the discouragement, the dreadful apathy of black southerners into a fighting conviction of a better world that could soon and surely be achieved.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Management Report - Case Study Example The report will identify and describe about the possible problems that the organisation could face by implementing the new ERP system based on traditional system development life cycle methodology and also provide recommendations to Solaricot for performing its business operations effectively. What an ERP System is ERP system is fundamentally described as a set of applications that is incorporated to administer broad assortment of commercial activities like finance, human resource and inventory among others. ERP software incorporates all features of business operational functions comprising business development, production functions and marketing activities. ERP system usually utilise databases as a source of information. The basic objective of ERP is to share information for simplifying the flow of data across business within an organisation (OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary, 2004). Values of ERP That Can Bring To Manufacturing Firm The adoption and the execution of ERP system has been noted to be qu ite common in manufacturing organisations. Successful ERP installations help the manufacturing firms to enhance their strategic as well as economical capabilities. In manufacturing organisations like Solaricot, ERP system can successfully address several management challenges. In this modern day context, organisations must manage all resources including supply chain activities in an effective manner. The integrated characteristics of ERP system makes the sharing of information easier and also deliver timely information. Furthermore, ERP system also assists the manufacturing firms in managing its inventory level effectually. Various ERP tools that comprise demand forecasting, inventory visibility and cohesive scheduling are typically used for ensuring dynamic manufacturing operations. In manufacturing firms, ERP system makes the production functions to remain on track and generate quality products (Muscatello & et. al., 2003). Possible Problems of ERP System in Solaricot Though ERP s ystem can frequently assist different organisations towards enhancing their respective production abilities, it can also bring failure to certain organisations. In this similar context, several aspects could have gone wrong with the new system at Solaricot. The possible problems of ERP system in Solaricot have been described hereunder. Improper Customisation of the ERP system Based on the traditional systems development life cycle methodology, the first possible reason for the failure of ERP system
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Legal Determinations for Change in Employment Status - Essay Example Changes in the employment status take place in the workplaces every day. The changes could be either progressive or regressive. The factors that lead to such changes include age, ability, economic conditions, discipline and duration of duty. These factors directly lead to changes that include, but are not limited to; promotions, pay increments and decrements, transfers and layoffs. These changes are guided by legal statutes and it is only wise that employees learn and keep the legal implications that come with the employment status changes. There have been numerous misinformed changes in employment status for many due to lack of information on entitlements provided by the law (C. C. H. Incorporated) As human resources officer, I am prone to these changes too. The three most probable are confirmation of employment, transfers and promotion. These status changes reflect loosely the chronology of employment for a diligent human resource officer. They are hierarchal, with improvements along the ranks during the time one works for a company or is in the professional field. Confirmation of employment is a change that is guaranteed at present as the transfers and promotions are bound to take course with time (Holland and Burnet, 63) The confirmation of employment is the first change in employment status for almost all the employees in the formal sector. Most companies have got a probation period provided for in their terms and conditions. The period is used to monitor the progress of new hires and also serve as a learning moment for them. During this period, guided by the terms and company policy, the employment is on contract basis and sometimes the employees receive half their salaries. The period spans between three to seven months depending on the company and its policies. After this period, an employee is confirmed and hired on permanent basis. This should be the first employment status change for anybody (Holland and Burnet, 63). The second
Friday, August 23, 2019
To reduce public debt, the welfare state has to be cut back. Discuss - Essay Example It shall discuss the reduction of public debt, and how cutting back on the welfare state can help reduce or manage it. High public debt can weigh heavily on economic growth. Ã¢â¬Å"While causality runs both ways, an important causal channel is taxation: high public debt implies the need to distort economic activity (labor, capital) to service the debt (either through taxation or cuts in productive spending) which dampens economic growthÃ¢â¬ (Ostry, Ghosh, Espinosa, 2015, p. 2). This reasoning also relates to the fact that establishing a basis for sustainable growth would call for payment made upfront for the reduction of current debts. For countries experiencing gaps in their economic structures while being burdened with public debts, an apparent tradeoff is usually observed between the establishment of public capital stock and the need to secure a basis for increased economic growth (Ostry, et.al., 2015). Based on an analysis of countries which have gone through economic stagnation, the issue of high public debt has been named as a major issue holding back the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s progress (Ostry, e t.al., 2015). In Europe, the early 2000s brought about economic stagnation in the region (Busch, 2010). Such economic stagnation has had a negative effect on their social security processes not just in the region, but also in other parts of the world (Alcock, 2014). Since the 1990s, the welfare state in most industrialized nations have experienced significant pressure and strain due to the increase in population, changes in the demographic qualities of the population, the increase in public debt, and low rates of employment (Busch, 2010). As such, major reforms were implemented to address these issues. The mid-2000s saw an economic boom for the region, allowing pressure off the welfare state (Busch, 2010). However, this also meant a significant increase in public debt, including an increase in unemployment rates. Growth rates for the region were
Byzantine up to the Early Reniassance - Essay Example Their paintings thus entailed naturalism and reality (Lahti 10). These artists comprised Donatella, Masaccio, Giotto, Brunelleschi, among others. Their art sought to refute global gothic style diffusing during that era. Scientific relations also comprised a feature of their paintings. Their art exemplified lots of skill and prowess. The art entailed lots of influence emanating from Roman Catholic. Another feature eminent throughout the images would be use of extra light and color in paintings. This exemplifies that the paintings depicted a higher quality compared to those produced in premature renaissance. Artist enjoyed lots of funding from wealthy families and religious persons. The sponsors chipped in coupled with the target of developing the sculptures and painters while portraying their skill. Multiple Choice Questions 1) Donatella encompassed a Florentine A) Painter b) Drawer c) Singer d) Ruler 2) Renaissance expounds a practice enveloping A) Eastern Rome B) Central Rome C) Wes tern Rome d) Europe 3) Early Renaissance entailed artists that refuted art that was a) Gothic b) Natural C) realistic d) Revolutionized 4) Artists during early renaissance included a) Brunelleschi b) Leonardo da Vinci c) Michelangelo D) Raphael First Image (1427) Figure 1: The Holy Trinity, Florence. Retrieved from http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Masaccio.html The painting above encompasses an esteemed masterpiece during 1427. This entails one of MassacioÃ¢â¬â¢s works. This entails a Holly Trinity painting for Novella church that encompasses its situation in Florence. Unlike prior painting, this painting entails depictions of revolutionized art. One indispensable feature would be improved use of light. The painting differs from earlier ones with reference from the ideology that the latter just showed lines. The lines showed demarcations that unveiled different partitions of a drawing. More so, the image encompasses relations to Roman Catholic convictions (Lahti 15). This dr aws explanations from the ideology that Roman Catholic entailed a distinct religious culture. Another similarity to images and arts of this era entails their refutation to Gothic styles. This expounds that Massacio refuted the diffusing ideologies of Goth existing during that duration. Therefore, he sought making art that depicted reality and naturalism. In addition, the painting depicts human bodies in a rational manner. This draws basing from the ideology that earlier paintings comprised of images that entailed no clarity. The imager also entails depictions of societal beliefs. This exemplifies that this art correlates to Eastern RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s catholic beliefs. Second image (1415-1416) Figure 2: Ã¢â¬Å"St. GeorgeÃ¢â¬ Retrieved from http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Donatello.html The image above depicts a sculptor that owes its making to a renowned Florentine. Donatella encompassed a sculptor that made history in Rome. His art entails illuminations of sculptures that depic ted lots of humanism. The sculpture above represents Saint George. Unlike the belief by Catholics that saints ought to depict solemnity, Donatella refuted those arguments by making Saint George appear serious and prepared to combat the enemy. Similarities between Masaccio and DonatellaÃ¢â¬â¢s images The images depict lots of realism (Lahti 20). This gains explanations from the ideology that they entail real features comprising a beingÃ¢â¬â¢
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Sub-Saharan Africa Essay A Ã¢â¬Å"little more than a hundred years ago much of Africa was a vast unknownÃ¢â¬ (Gestrin xix). It is different and has many untapped natural resources such as cobalt, gold, chrome, platinum, and uranium. The most significant turning point in AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s history is the G8 plan. The G8 plan, Leaders of the Group of Eight, signed an agreement with African leaders to support development. Economic growth there is credited to 80 percent of poverty reduction. Each Sub-Saharan Africa country has its own native language; however, there are usually other secondary languages. Ã¢â¬Å"Lingua francaÃ¢â¬ is a language that is systematically used to communicate with those not speaking the native language. Sub-Saharan Africa is comprised of forty-eight countries with a population of more than 500 million (Gestrin xx). The population has been doubling every twenty-four years; Ã¢â¬Å"more than half of the population in most sub-Saharan countries is under the age of fifteenÃ¢â¬ (Gestrin 57). So, one can say that sub-Saharan Africa is very Ã¢â¬Å"developedÃ¢â¬ in that way. The region of Sahel stretches Ã¢â¬Å"from Mauritamia and Senegal in the west across Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, northern Nigeria, and Chad in the eastÃ¢â¬ (Gestrin 185). Cultural differences among the Muslims and Christians cause political divisions and military conflicts. There has also been a long history of drought, famine, and depopulation. Thus, people are involved in farming and food processing to ease the situation. The same cultural differences existed in Nigeria. As a result, the country was governed as two separate ones. In 1997, Nigeria was named Ã¢â¬Å"the most corrupt country to do business inÃ¢â¬ since many Nigerians were known as con artists and hustlers (Gestrin 178). Ethnic turmoil in Rwanda resulted from conflicts from the Hutu and the Tutsi peoples. The Hutus were cultivators and comprised 85 percent of the population; the Tutsis were herders and were the remaining 14 percent. Both groups are Catholic, spoke the same language, and shared customs. Both the German and Belgian colonialists allowed the Tutsis to rule over the Hutus; the Hutus resented them because of their wealth (Gestrin 15). Apartheid began in 1948 in South Africa as a means of political separation. People were classified into four racial groups: black, white, coloured (mixed races), and Indian or Asian. Resistance to apartheid began in 1974 when Portugal withdrew forces from Mozambique and, Angola. Anti-apartheid movements were happening in the United States and Europe; the countries began boycotts against South Africa. An election was held on April 27, 1994. As a result, Nelson Mandela became South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s president on May 10, 1994. As of January 15, 2009, there are 11 million refugees in Africa; Congo, Somalia, and Sudan are the worst cases. Many of these refugees are driven from their homes due to ethnic conflicts and civil war (2). In 2007, 75 percent of all AIDS deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. Unprotected anal sex between men is the biggest reason for the majority of AIDS cases. In addition, condom use is rare among heterosexual couples. About 90 percent of couples say that they do not use condoms. Sharing infected drug needles also spreads the disease (3). Sex work is also common. Unfortunately, Ã¢â¬Å"health services in many countries are swamped by the need to care for increasing numbers of infected and sick peopleÃ¢â¬ (Gestrin 69). Only the affluent can afford the medications. Works Cited Gestrin, Phyllis and Yale Richmond. Into Africa: Intercultural Insights. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press, Inc. , 1998. Peacekeeping: Eleven Million African Refugees (2009). Retrieved June 23, 2009 from http://www. strategypage. com. Sub-Saharan Africa: 2008 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Retrieved June 15 2009 from http://www. inaids. org.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Laws Of Judaism And Christianity On Marriage Religion Essay It is well know that Christianity is originated from Judaism so ChristianityÃ andÃ JudaismÃ share a great portion of historical root. The sacred text of Judaism is also included in the sacred text of Christianity. It is therefore that a great similarity on religious teaching and rules exist between those two great religions. However, lots of teaching and religious rules from Judaism were denied or expended by Jesus and following Christian apostles later on, leading to a significant gap between those two religions. The teaching or rules on marriage is one of these issues. This essay takes insight into teaching and rules on marriage both from Christianity and Judaism. A comparison and contrast are carried out and any reason behind the difference and similarities would be pointed out in this essay as well. The story narrated in the first chapter of Genesis which is included both in sacred text of Christianity and Judaism is possibly the best blueprint to illustrate the center concept on marriage for both Christianity and Judaism. The essay is expended from this story as well. The story is described like this :God had a rest on the seventh day after working for six days to create the cosmos. At the climax of creation, God was not satisfied with his creation so he continued to create a man named Adam from clay. Adam was placed in a Garden called Eden as a cultivator and keeper. However not long after that God did not want to Adam lived in the garden alone and he said that It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him. God took out one bone from Adams body and closed up the place with fresh thus he created a woman named Eva. God brought the woman to Adam. Once Adam saw the woman he was very joyful and said that this is bone of my bones and flesh of my fles h. Following that Genesis wrote that That is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh. However the lovely story did not have a good ending. Not long after that the couple were living in happily in the garden, Eva was tempted by a serpent to eat the fruit of knowledge tree with Adam, which was forbidden by God. Both of them were expelled from the joyful garden by God later. The story here is closely studied as a teaching or an example of marriage both in Christianity and Judaism. Eva was created because God dont want Adam to be alone. The creation of Eva is a kind of a symbol of the creation of marriage in the interpretation of the story. Furthermore in bible marriage is also used to describe the relationship between the God and Israel by Judaism while in Christianity it is symbolize the relationship between Christ and Church. It is therefore that marriage is regarded as a divine institution instead of Ã a human institution devised in the human history. This essay illustrates the how does this story influence the concept of Christian and Judaism on marriage in several perspectives, like , celibacy, monogamy or polygamy, sex, women role in marriage, divorce and remarriage, Intermarriage. Celibacy Since it is said that God thought that It is not good for the man to be alone, celibacy is not recommended both in the two religions. God would like man and woman live together as a physical and spiritual mate with each other. InÃ Judaism, marriage and raising children are understood as strongly holy obligations. Traditionally, it was impossible for a unmarried male to be in leadership positionÃ in the Jewish society. Historically there was only one prophet Jeremiah, who did not marry in Bible, thats because that he lived in prescribed periods of sexual abstinence in relation with rituals, sacrifices and the prosecution ofÃ holy wars. However there were rather a few exceptional examples, according to the historianÃ Josephus, some members of the EssenceÃ sect, rejected marriage, and the medieval Talmudic scholar Ben Azzai remained celibate. Compared to Judaism, Christianity though highly approve the necessity of marriage, do not give as much weightiness as Judaism do. That is because that Christian believe that people do not marry each other in the coming kingdom. In addition ,the examples of that some Jesus followers who gave up their family in order to proclaim the coming kingdom are used as demonstrations for the validity of celibacy in purpose of completely devotion to preach the coming kingdom. In addition it was believed by Paul that a devoted life of celibacy is helpful for a deeper commitment to spirituality. However, since adultery is strong opposed and marriage is regarded as a effective way to prevent adultery, marriage was still recommended in some degree in the New Testament. The attitude toward Celibacy vary a lot among different church groups. Currently general speaking , ProtestantÃ is the church group which most strongly support marriage as a correct and normal way of Christian living while Catholic s till now command clerical celibacy. Monogamy or Polygamy Since God created only one woman for Adam, pointing to monogamy, most of Jewish rabbis claimed that monogamy is ideal for Jews today though polygamy is permitted as well. Ã It is also because that the relationship between a man and his wife is also used to illustrate the love between God and Israel by Hebrew prophets, for this metaphor, monogamy is ideal. Actually monogamy has became the Jewish married custom since the return from the Babylonian exile. In addition, Monogamy is assumed in the description of restoration of human race in the flood period of time. While monogamy is the dominance, polygamy was also practiced in Jewish community in history like King David who had two wives and Solomon who had 700 wives. However the two examples of polygamy have been normally regarded as negative examples by most of Jews. The polygamy case of Solomon led to his idolatry and finally destruction of the whole Israel. There are still some polygamy examples today, such as Mediterranean Jews li ving in Yemen, rabbis permitting Jews to marry up to four wives.Ã In modern Israel, where a wife cannot bear children or is mentally ill, the rabbis give a husband the right to marry a second woman without divorcing his first wife. Generally speaking, like Judaism, Christianity has the same understanding on the Eden story in terms of monogamy. It is common believe that monogamy is further strengthen in many places in the sacred text of Christianity new testament by Jesus and Paul. Polygamy is regarded as a kind of idolatry in most of churches. To be noticed, the practice of serial monogamy is also rejected as immoral by traditional teaching in Christianity because it contradicts the biblical purpose of marriage which is to develop a lifelong one flesh relationship. While monogamy has been accepted by most of churches groups, there has been a few churches like some groups of Mormon practice polygamy in several periods of time in the history and even today. The reason why Mormon practice polygamy is that they believe Jesus told his followers to multiply and replenish the Earth. Sex in marriage Sex is not described in the story thats because sex desire is regarded as a evil impulse after human was expelled from the Eden garden in Judaism. However it is not said that Jews disregard sexual desire. Sexual desire is believed as a human instinct like hunger and thirst. In Judaism sex is not only for physical pleasure but also has a remarkable holy significance and is practiced as a way to reinforce the loving relationship between a husband and a wife. The requirement of marriage before sex ensures that sense of commitment and responsibility. It is therefore that sex is only permissible inside the context of aÃ marriage. In Jewish marriage, Sex is regarded as a right of a wife not a husband. A husband has a duty to have sex with his wife if she has sexual desire but cannot compel to do so if she doesnt want to. A wife though have a right to have sex, cannot use sex as a weapon to punish her spousal. Compared to Judaism, Christianity views sex not as important as Judaism does. Paul of Tarsus thought sex was totally unnecessary thing and Jesus coming kingdom has no interest in that. Furthermore, sexual desire is regarded as a physical enjoyment as a result of humans fall so it should be restrained in order to achieve Gods desire. Any sexual activities unless in purpose of giving offspring is regarded as a negative thing coming from humans fallen flesh. For some periods in history, Christian couples only have sex for the purpose of giving offspring and the couples lived apart in the other time. However since adultery is strong opposed by Jesus and Paul in the New Testament. In order to prevent having sex with unmarried people, Paul supported sex within marriage as a mean to resist the sexual temptation. Due to the different interpretation of verse, Sex within marriage is practiced quite differently by Christian from different church groups. Generally speaking, Christian Churches ho ld a conservative attitude towards Sex and sex is not discussed publicly in the churches, mostly is personal experience. Women role in marriage In the story, Adam was created from earth and the Eve was created from Adam. In addition, the woman was created to be a helper and companion for the man. This story reflects woman marital status in Jewish marriage. A wife is often regarded not only as a helper who is given to her husband by God to fulfill her husbands wishes but also a soul mate in the spiritual level. It is therefore that a wife is highly valued in marriage in Judaism. A husband was taught by Judaism law to love his wife as much as love himself. A husband is also encouraged to discuss worldly matter which might raise in his life. Traditionally a wife in Jewish family has many rights, for example sex is regarded as a right of woman not man. Jewish woman also can have her own asset in her family. In addition, without consent of his wife, a husband cannot divorce his wife. However there are some obligations of woman are listed in Judaism law. A married woman should be modest and is required not to leave home too freque ntly. The descriptions of the bible suggest that a wife was expected to perform certain household tasks: spinning, sewing, weaving, manufacture of clothing, fetching of water, baking of bread, andÃ animal husbandry. The martial role of women is quite controversial in Christianity. While some believe that women should live under men leadership, others advocate the equality between men and women in marriage. For those holding the first opinion, they claim that woman is created from man and acted as an assistant and governed by man originally in the Eden garden. They think that the leader status of men in marriage is further affirmed by New Testament. Paul said that For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church (Ephesians 5:23). It is therefore that the authority of husband in marriage is unshakable. However egalitarian argue that equity between men and women were mentioned in the New Testament, like there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ (Galatians 3:27). This verse implies that Christian marriage, both husband and wife enjoy equal status and privilege before God because of their position in Christ. Furthermore like Judaism, New Testamen t asked husbands to love their wives as loving themselves in many times, implying the equality between two genders. The first opinion is mostly adopted by traditional man dominant societies like Asia and Africa. The second opinion is widely accepted by western culture societies. Divorce One flesh from the story indicates that God wanted the couples lived with each other permanently. Couples who have been married for many years start to think, act, and feel as one; they become one in mind, heart and spirit. Divorce thus leaves not two persons, but two fractions of one. It is therefore that divorce is a tragedy both for Christianity and Judaism. However Judaism do approve divorce, in some conditions even encourage so. Historically divorce is only the rightÃ of men under some circumstances like:Ã if theÃ marriageÃ was childless after ten years; if the husband refused to have sex with his wife; if the husband beat his wife; or if the husband contracted a loathsome disease. The prerogative was changed by rabbinical law round the year 1000 CE that a husband could not divorce his wife without her consent. Nowadays a husband and wife who are seeking divorce should be interviewed in a rabbinical law in order to guarantee that the divorce is an agreement between the two parties. Financial and offspring matters would be discussed in the court as well, normally the vulnerability of woman would be considered. If the divorce is granted, aÃ getÃ (divorce decree) is drawn up in hand-lettered Hebrew. Remarriage is regarded as the same with the first marriage as long as the divorced person obtain a get in RabbinicalÃ Court whe n he got divorce. Traditional ChristianÃ views onÃ marriage disapproves divorce. Divorce is even regarded as a kind of adultery. This can be affirmed by Matthew 5:32. Jesus teaches about divorce:But I say that a man who divorces his wife, unless she has been unfaithful, causes her to commit adultery. And anyone who marries a divorced woman commits adultery. The permanence of marriage is emphasized by Jesus here. However divorce is practiced among Christian nowadays and the attitudes towards divorce vary among different church groups. The Catholic Church prohibits divorce. The Catholic doctrine claimed that a couples even divorce civilly but they are still one in front of God. The Eastern Orthodox Church permits divorce and remarriage in church in certain circumstances, though its rules are generally more restrictive that the civil divorce rules of most countries. MostÃ ProtestantÃ churches though do not prohibit divorce through church doctrine, discourage divorce except as a last solution. Interfaith marriage Intermarriage is disfavor by Torah and Jewish rabbis out of fear of idolatry and Jewish assimilation historically. In Bible it records that Jews were forbidden to marry CanaanitesÃ in the fear of children might be brought up to follow CanaanitesÃ religion. Historically marriage between Jews and non-Jews were extremely rare until recent 19 century under the influence of Jewish enlightenments. Nowadays this issue of intermarriage is quite controversial among Jewish society. While growing number of intermarriage are approved by reformists as long as the intermarried couples are agree to their raise their children as Jews, Orthodox rabbis still believe that intermarriage is kind of rejection of Judaism leading to be cut off from Jewish community. Generally speaking, due to recent reformation and liberty movement, intermarriage is treated much more tolerably than before in Jewish community. There was a survey shows that an intermarriage rate of 52 percent among American Jews. Compared with Judaism, Christianity has much more tolerable attitude towards interfaith marriage. However worry over that religious conflict in intermarriage is still exist in Christianity. Furthermore the sacramental essence of marriage is believed to be retained better by Christian couples in some churches. It is therefore that some churches disapprove intermarriage like Orthodox and Catholics churches. In ProtestantÃ churches inter faith marriage is not totally forbidden but Christians are encourage to marry people who has the same faith. As a result, most Protestant denominations will allow interfaith marriage. In conclusion Eden story is seen as a model of marriage, which guides and supports the view of believers from the religions on Marriage. While celibacy is disfavored by Judaism, it is regarded as a gift from God but not strongly recommended in Christianity. Although monogamy has been dominant marriage custom in the two religions, polygamy has been practiced minority even today. Compared to Christianity, Judaism has more opened attitude toward sex within marriage. Women had higher status in Judaism marriage than Christianity marriage historically, but nowadays equality between two parties is accepted commonly. Divorce is seen as a tragedy for the two religions. While divorce and remarry is allowable literally in Judaism, it is forbidden in many Christian churches out fear of adultery. Christianity has more tolerable attitude on interfaith marriage than Judaism. Marriage is very important to both of the religions. Although the two religions share a great portion of similarity, the difference of views on marriage is still significant. To be noticed, different groups holds different views on marriage within the same religion.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Significant Grammatical Error Subject Verb Agreement English Language Essay Writing is no ordinary assignment and it requires one to have inclusive skills to construct a high quality of work. The mechanism of writing comprises the grammar, sentence structure and also, the organization of the writing. However, these skills are threatening the students performances in their writing task as most of them, do not relate the concept they have learned in their writing. As students attain their tertiary level of education, they are requires to generate further written materials such essays, reports, commentaries etc.. These requirements also must be in English language as English language is the core language for communication and to guide the students to get used to using the English language at their place of work. To be precise, the native speakers of Malay language are the largely significant group that imply the discussed predicament. According to their essays, most of them are prone to produce error in grammar and explicitly, subject-verb agreement. These essays are gathered from their semester examination and a study is conducted. Through the analysis, it has been found that the students have a major fault with the usage of subject-verb agreement. The result for this study is not fundamentally for the sake of the error itself, but, a scheme for students understandings and improved teaching methods. Eventually, this will also help in enhancing the English language amongst the students. (227 words) CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION The topic about subject-verb agreement is chosen because of its significance in writings. Without a proper rules of subject-verb agreement, the ideas in writing in difficult to convey and thus, worsen the value of writing itself. Any mistakes regarding the subject-verb agreement will definitely change the meaning of the sentence. Moreover, the research among the tertiary level students is interesting, because, though they have achieved to a higher education, most of them still, could not apply the correct rules of this grammar. This main issue will be discussed further in this research. In addition, most students are complaining about the errors they make in writings, mainly subject-verb agreement. The simple definition of the subject verb agreement is as simple as a subject agreeing with a verb. If the singular subject is used, the singular verb is obligatory and same goes with the plural subject that is plural verb respectively. This simple rule of grammar makes the mistakes produced by the students clearly visible. During the study of the students writings, they tend to make mistakes in general rules and the sub rule in subject-verb agreement. Moreover, upon looking of the students errors, this research also includes the remedial actions that need to be approached to the students in order to improve the problems of the students in using the correct subject-verb agreement in their writings. 1.1 THE CONTEXT OF THE STUDY The study was conducted on Year 2 students in MARA College of Banting whom are taking International Baccalaureate Diploma programme for 2009 / 2011 batch session. Even though, the Malaysian education system announced that English as a Second Language (ESL), most of the subjects use English language as their medium of communication. Primarily, the scope of the study is focused on the grammatical error produced by the students in their writings based on the students examination papers. Eventually, the study is narrowed to more specific type of grammatical error that is the subject-verb agreement due to its frequency of error is the highest. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem arose when there were complaints from teachers about the students English performance English Semester Two examination paper. The teachers were commenting on about the students English essays. Although the students had achieved good results, namely in English 1119 in Malaysia Education Certificate which is known as Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM), the students are still producing some grammatical errors in their essays. Therefore, the research is carried out to study the problem of the students in their English essays and the most significant error they had produced. In order to arrive to the conclusion of this study, error analysis is used as an indicator to enable the significant error to be detected. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Based on the statement of the problem, the study is focused on the students most common grammatical errors in their writing production. It is noted that the written production was analyzed based on their English essay in Semester Two examination paper. The objectives of this study are: To investigate the most significant grammatical error produced by the students in the English essays. To identify the reasons for the error occurrence. To find solution to improve the error in writing among students. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION The research question of this study is linked to three important aspects: writing, error analysis and grammar that will be narrowed down to subject-verb agreement as the most significant error. Therefore, the research question is constructed based on these three main components. Is subject-verb agreement the most significant grammatical error produced by the student of MARA College of Banting of 2009/2011 batch session in their writings? Moreover, the research topic is chosen originally of personal interest. I have become concerned about the complaints from the English teachers about the students grammar. Therefore, this research topic of subject-verb agreement will be examined thoroughly. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCES OF THIS STUDY The importance of the research as follows: To help the students to identify their significant grammatical error in writing the English essay and helping them to overcome the flaws in writing English. To aid the students to produce a quality English essays in the future. To help the teachers, explicitly in English Department by aiding them to create a suitable framework for the students in the teaching methods. 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of the study will be centralized on the subject-verb agreement errors in writing of the students in MARA College of Banting of 2009 / 2011 batch session. These students represent the tertiary level students and their grammar usage of subject-verb agreement. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 WRITING AS AN IMPORTANT SKILL Essay writing (Koch) is conducted to the students so that they can affix diverse fundamentals of course and extend the insightful by going beyond what is educated in the class. Moreover, writing an essay is in fact a production of sovereignty to convey opinions by the students or the author themselves. They have to work in the constraints and, accordingly, they should have an apt familiarity on how to present and communicate their ideas in understandable and efficient performance. 2.1 ESSENCE OF GRAMMAR IN WRITING Grammar is the logic of speech, even as logic is the grammar of reason.Ã Richard C. TrenchÃ Ã According to Richard C. Trench, the use of grammar is very important in depicting the value of the language and the judgment towards the ideas. The use of grammar also reflects the authors writing skill and it will give the reader an indication of the content in the written production will be like. On whole, the logic of language depends completely on its grammar usage. In addition, the grammatical error can give a reader a bad impression of the authors abilities. The higher degree of grammar usage in English produces more quality of works. Though nobodys grammar is perfect, grammar teaches an author to control the language they are using. If the grammar is strictly controlled with firm and strong basic knowledge, a good work of essay will be produced. 2.3 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT AS IMPORTANT TOOL As writing required strong and firm sentences to create understanding in the essay, the basic of grammar, basically, subject needs to agree with the verb. If the author fails to apply the tool in writing, they can make reading more difficult as well as to convey the ideas. Same thing that is overlooked, the common error is that of incorrect use of the subject and verb agreement. VerbÃ Ã is the most important part of a sentence. These two parts are correlated as the subject is the main topic of the sentence; it has to be matched with verb. For instance, Julia and Megan are going to the cinema today. Mother wants to cook chicken soup for me. These two examples follow the rules of subject-verb agreement. Julia and Megan is the plural subject, and the verb used is are. While the second sentence follows the same rule, mother is the singular subject and wants as its verb. Henceforth, authors and writer need to master this rule in order to write effectively and convey their message clearly. This topic is also agreed by Surina Nayan (August, 2009) in her research on A Study of Subject-Verb Agreement: From Novice Writer to Expert WritersÃ Ã . In her research, the students have difficulties in subject-verb agreement because, in their L1 which is Malay language, they do not have such rules of subject needs to agree with verb. In the long run, mother tongue of the student affects the performance of English grammar. 2.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF ERROR ANALYSIS However, even after an approximate 11 years of formal English education in school, majority of the students tend to produce most subject-verb agreement error in their writing. Error in writing happens when there is a change in the language. After reviewing the students writings, and receiving complaints from teachers, it is necessary to conduct an analysis regarding the error produced by the students. In academic context, error analysis will help the student to improve their lack in grammatical usage efficiently. The consideration to error type and an understanding of the misuse of specific grammar rules proposes teachers a means of helping students to deal with language and usage problems (Ho, 2003). Then, the students can attain their remedy through the research. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.0 INTRODUCTION In this section, the procedures of collecting the data are disclosed. It consists of the procedures that are related with the analysis of the data. 3.1 SUBJECT OF THE STUDY This study involved a random sampling of 45 students among the second year students in MARA College of Banting. The students in the college are receiving the scholarship to study abroad. Overall, the students have a good education background from their previous achievements. These students were chosen at random from the Medicine, Biotechnology and Engineering streams. 3.2 PROCEDURE OF RESEARCH In order to find the students significant error in their writings, 45 students essays were reviewed. The essays were based from their Semester 2 examination. All of the students are taking English B Higher Level for their International Baccalaureate final examinations in May 2011. The examination scripts were marked by the teachers also has included the teachers comments on the students errors. Apart from that, two different sets of questionnaires were also distributed to the students and teachers in continuance of the opinion from them about the writing trends by providing the quantitative data. The questionnaires are set to create the awareness to the students and also their responses in the respective study. The teachers were also given the questionnaire to give a clearer indication in this problem of writing among the students prior to their experiences in teaching English language. 3.3 METHODOLOGY To begin with, the students chosen were asked for their Semester 2 examination paper, especially their English writing in Paper 2. After compiling all the paper from the students, the papers were then checked and identified for the errors done by the students. The feedbacks and comments from the teachers notes were recorded as well. It follows that, after, the study of the students paper is done, and every significant error made by the students is verified. With the reference from the teachers marking scheme, this study has been set into few parameters to ease to the focused topic research that is the grammatical error specifically in writing . The scheme is used as a guide to gather the error made by the students. The marking scheme of the writing essay is obtained from the teacher (Refer Appendix 1). Besides, in this study of the written production by the students, the three major components that are taken into account in order to justify the most significant error in the students essay are: a. Grammatical error b. Vocabulary c. Spelling d. Paragraph structure In the wider quality of the writing production of the students, the identification of the grammatical error in their writing productions is focused. The grammatical errors are classified into: noun ending, articles, verb tenses, verb forms and subject-verb agreement. These findings are observed and, the results are recorded. CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the main idea that will be focused on is about processing the data collection from 49 of the students essay writings. The results of the data are constructed relatively to the aim of the research. What is the most significant grammatical error composed by the students in their English essays? Why the students are tend to produce the error? 4.1 RESULTS OF THE DATA Based on the objectives of this investigation, after 45 essays are monitored, the errors are classified on the grammar errors, vocabulary, spelling and also, their paragraph structure. However, looking into deeper insight of the writing skills among the students, the specific error that is mainly focused is their grammatical errors. This is due to students produced their original writing of ideas during their examinations without having any references. As to that, it is easier to recognize the factors that are affecting them. In order to find the common mistakes produced by the students, 10 questionnaires (Refer Appendix 2) have been distributed among the English language teachers as to response to the objective of this investigation. This survey had been distributed to the teachers in the month of September 2010. The bar chart shows the number of teacher and their responses. Figure The graph shows the number of English language in MARA College of Banting teachers and their feedbacks on the students writing skill in their semester 2 examinations paper. Based on the bar chart, the most significant aspect is that the usage of the grammar. It is responded by majority of six teachers. Then, it is followed by four teachers who voted as satisfactory. However, by the frequency of good, very good and excellent, there are no votes for grammatical error. The other aspect for vocabulary is voted by two teachers to be an unsatisfactory grade. But, it more teachers votings lead to satisfactory and the highest five votes from teachers are accumulated in good grade. This shows that the teachers have found out most of the students flaws in their writings are grammatical error. Therefore, after accumulating the votes from the teacher as the sophisticated users, 45 questionnaires were also distributed to the students (Refer Appendix 3). This refers to question number 19, asking on the students personal opinion about their grammar performances. Statements Number of students Percentage % Im not certain whether my English grammar is a problem for my writing 16 35.56 My English grammar problems are exceedingly severe and spoil my writing 12 26.66 Though I dont know much regarding English grammar, its not a serious problem for me 10 22.22 English grammar is not really a serious subject for me. Other writing issues are more vital. 7 15.56 Total 45 100.00 Table Percentage of the students statement in grammar. The Table 1 above shows the statements chosen by the 45 chosen students, the number of the students responses and their percentage in each statement. Based on the statements made by 45 students in this study, the highest percentage of 35.56 percent out of the 45 students stated that they are not really sure whether their English grammar is a problem for them. It is followed by 26.66 percent of the students stated that their English grammar problems are very serious and hurt their writing. The third highest percentage is 22.22 percent that the students thinks that though they dont know much about English grammar, they think it is not a serious problem for them. Subsequently, the lowest percentage is only 15.56 percent that stated by seven students. They claimed that the English grammar is not a serious issue for them; however, they think that there are other important issue that harm their writing production. From the surveyed, predominantly, most of the students are still unaware of their grammar error especially in writing. 4.2 GRAMMATICAL ERRORS Throughout the findings of the students error in their writing production, it is obviously shown that grammar error is the main flaws that hurt their writing performance. Looking deeper into this study, their writing scripts were also analysed based on the type of grammar mistakes that they tend to repeat. With regard to that, the grammar errors produced by the students are classified to: noun ending, articles, verb tenses, verb forms and subject-verb agreement. The students writing scripts were analyzed for their error. Their marked writing scripts done by the teachers have eased the calculation of the students errors. The first step of this calculation is each of every error in the scripts is calculated and accumulated. After that each of the type of error is counted upon the whole error. The percentage of the type of error done by the students cum the respondents of MARA College Banting is shown in the bar chart in Figure 2. Figure The Graph 2 shows the percentage of the type of error done by the students in MARA College of Banting in their writing production in Semester 2 examinations. According to the Graph 2, the highest error produced by the students is subject-verb agreement which recorded to be 51.78 percent. Then, it is followed by noun ending with only 17.42 percent. The bar chart decreases to 12.14 percent as article error. Subsequently, verb tense and verb form are only in a small percentage of 9.66 percent and 9 percent respectively. However, there is also small portion of error produced by the students in the phrasal construction as well as their word choices. 4.3 DISCUSSION FOR FINDINGS In this segment, the discussion is extent to the respond of the question in part 4.0: b) Why the students are tend to produce the error? 4.3.1 SINGULAR AND PLURAL (SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT) As observed in the bar chart in Figure 2, the highest percentage of type of error produced by the students is subject-verb agreement which recorded as 51.78 percent. The percentage is more than 50 percent therefore; it can be a significant error by the students in their writing productions. To the amount of the highest percentage of subject-verb agreement in the students writing production, there are some of examples of the usage if the subject-verb agreement error from the students. By referring to table 2, there are some of the error in the sentences produced by the KMB students in their essays. No Identification of the error in students writings The correct usage of the SVA aspect 1 Everybody are feeling so excited about the class trip this weekend. Everybody is feeling so excited about the Sports Carnival this weekend. 2 Therefore, it show that most of the students are attracted to study abroad Therefore, it shows that most of the students are attracted to study abroad. 3 She is the secretary who write the report for the meeting. She is the secretary who writes the report for the meeting. 4 Five years are the minimum duration to study medicine. Five years is the minimum duration to study medicine. 5 Neither Sarah nor Jasmine are going to the park with me. Neither Sarah nor Jasmine is going to the park with me. 6 Only few was there to watch the show. Only few were there to watch the show. 7 The quantity of working women, who is earning higher than men, is increasing recently. The quantity of working women, who are earning higher than men, is increasing recently. 8 They do not realize how important the usage of technology are They do not realize how important the usage of technology is.. Table 2 Error produced by the students in the essays. Based on the Table 2e, from the examples (1) to (8), it can be observed that most of the students encountered the error in subject verb agreement. These errors will be further discussed to identify rules in subject-verb agreement and giving the guidelines to correct them. The words each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, anyone, nobody, somebody, someone, and no one are singular and require a singular verb. (Chris Berry)Ã Ã *Everybody are feeling so excited about the class trip this weekend. Correct sentence: Everybody is . * Neither Sarah nor Jasmine are going to the park with me. Correct sentence: Neither Sarah nor Jasmine is . Nouns such as civics, mathematics, dollars, measles, and news require singular verbs. (Chris Berry) * Five years are the minimum duration to study medicine. Correct sentence: Five years is . According to the error produced by the students, it can be stated that the students have more propensity in making error in the common rules of the subject verb agreement. This may be due to preventing themselves to use the sub-rule of the subject verb agreement. Based on the error produced by the students are chiefly completed under the general rule of the subject verb agreement. Apart from that, it is because of the interference of the Malay language that does not have any specific rule in the usage of singular or plural form of subject verb agreement. Besides, the students tend to construct the sentence structures upon their Malay language experience that create faulty in their essays. Again, it is concluded that the mother tongue of the students, mainly Malay language inhibit the progression of the English language of the students. In addition to this discussion, these subject and verb are the two main mechanisms in developing accurate and absolute sentence in English essays, so, as to this, the students need to be alert of the significance of the subject verb agreement usage. Therefore, the students need to be recognizable with this framework of the study. The students should be conceded that every subject verb agreement rules are vital in writing English essays, so that they have variations in phrase of words, mode and registration used to explicate. As a result, the effort of writing of the students will be more eminence and agreeable to be read. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter 5, we will be discussing about the overall of the conclusion and the recommendation of this study. 5.1 CONCLUSION Ultimately, after looking upon the students examination scripts for their writing production, it can be concluded that the most of the students tend to produce most error in their subject-verb agreement. Apparently the conclusion is also, based on the questionnaires that had been distributed among the students and the teachers as well. The significant analysis shows that, the research question is undoubtedly true. The main reason the students were producing error in subject-verb agreement is because; they do not have an inmost knowledge of this rules in grammar component. Most of the students were uncertain about the verb and the subject in writing their essays. However, we can also state that, they are learning English because it is one of the compulsory components that the students need to achieve in the education system in Malaysia as ESL. Moreover, most of the students here are using Malay language in daily conversation. In fact, in Malay language, the language system does not have specific rules of the plural and singular as in English grammar, especially in context of subject-verb agreement. When the students were asked, about the type of language they are using as thinking to write an essay, most of the students apply Malay language and trying to translate their sentences in English. This could be one of the reasons why the errors in subject-verb agreement among students are obvious and inhibit the grammar development among the students as the students rely highly upon the Malay language. Furthermore, based on the survey from the questionnaires, the students are lack of practice on their writing skills because, they said, it needs time to work on one essay. Subsequently, the students are also, have lack on the general knowledge and surveys showed that only 9 out of 49 students will spend their time reading non-academic books. Big portions of 80 percent of the students do not practice the reading culture. This could lead to the improper building of good sentences and a well flow of ideas in their essay. Their lack of knowledge on the system of the language and unsatisfactory terminology that the students had reflected to a certain extent the comportment they were educated, the learners approach and their learning strategies in the whole learning development. Even if these would mean that there is a need to perform a further study, the subsequent opinions on how a number of students would like their English class to be taught, give the teachers diverse notion on their outlook on the road to learning English in MARA College of Banting. 5.2 RECOMMENDATION This section is based from the vote in the questionnaire form that is distributed to the students in order to enhance their usage and understanding in subject-verb agreement. Students should have their own scheme to have further knowledge in the English language. This may be done through wide-ranging reading English text materials such as books, magazines and etc. The action is then can be adopted to the real purpose, verbal or written. This technique is voted to enhance the skill of the students in English language. The learning process of grammar should be taught constantly though the students have already reached their college levels. They should have a strong knowledge in grammar rules to make certain that the students can submit an application in their essays. The students should be prone to more English programme such as an English workshop to provide more familiar connection with the language. This sort of programme would benefit on the evaluation to the students. 5.3 RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE STUDIES To classify the targeted group of the study into weak and good students with their background family information. To study and analyzed the teaching process and the methods used by the lecturers or the teacher to approach the students in English language. Giving more exercises to the students based on the criteria needed and record the marks to compare them. REFERENCES
Monday, August 19, 2019
Henry Thoreau and Science Though best known as a literary figure, Henry Thoreau showed a lasting interest in science. He read widely in the scientific literature of his day and published one the first scholarly discussions on forest succession. In fact, some historians rate Thoreau as one of the founders of the modern science of ecology. At the same time, Thoreau often lamented scienceÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to kill poetry. Scientific writings coupled with his own careful observations often revealed life to him, but in other ways rendered nature lifeless. Modern-day Thoreauvians are also aware that science has largely become a tool for control and increased consumption, rather than for the appreciation and protection of wild nature. This paper explores some of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s reflections on science and "system," and presents his view of the proper role of science in our lives. As will become clear, ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s worries are occasioned by his own scientific endeavors. His responses to scienceÃ¢â¬â¢s insuffici encies are reformist, suggesting ways to improve and supplement science rather than discard it. Why do precisely these objects which we behold make a world? Why has man just these species of animals for his neighbors; as if nothing but a mouse could have filled this crevice? Ã¢â¬â Walden (1) Introduction Henry Thoreau, like Goethe before him, showed a lasting interest in science. (2) He belonged to the Boston Natural History Society from 1850 onwards, and read widely in the current scientific literature. Beyond this, Thoreau was intensely interested in the scientific puzzles suggested by his own rambles around Concord, Massachusetts. In the years following WaldenÃ¢â¬â¢s publication he observed more systematically and tested his hypotheses more rigorously, and published one of the first scholarly discussions on forest succession. Some historians rate Thoreau as one of the founders of the modern science of ecology. (3) At the same time Thoreau often lamented scienceÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to kill poetry. The scientific writings of others and his own careful observations often revealed life to him, but at other times rendered nature lifeless. (4) Modern-day Thoreauvians are also aware of scienceÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the imperialistic conquest of nature. We love the wild, yet science has largely become a tool for control, commodification and increased consumption, rather than for the appreciation and protection of nature. (5) The proper role of science in human society and in our own lives is thus an important issue. This paper explores some of ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s reflections on science and "system.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Introduction There has been much research done on organizational dissent, but there is a dearth of research dedicated to how television shows portray dissent over the airwaves. In Deviating From the Script: A Content Analysis of Organizational Dissent as Portrayed on Primetime Television by Johny T. Garner, Emily S. Kinsky, Andrei C. Duta, and Julia Danker, the authors attempted to combine these two theories for their study. Using the data collected by the authors and their research team, the authors resolved to measure how effective the dissent was in creating change. Organizational dissent is important in nonfictional workplaces for a variety of reasons, and these results indicate one potential influence on organizational members that may depict dissent as futile (Garner et al., 2012, p. 620). The authors set about trying to quantify organizational dissent on network television in the primetime hours. The authors also argued that organizational dissent was the challenge of status quo and the be nefits of this challenge was of value to both the dissenter and the organization as well. This review will provide a critical analysis of the article as well offer some insights into where the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ research could go further. Hypotheses and Philosophical Perspectives Garner et al. provided three hypotheses for their content analysis of primetime programming. First, the authors hypothesized that dissent would be portrayed as ineffective. In this hypothesis, effectiveness was defined in terms of receiving emotional support and/or achieving instrumental change. The second hypothesis was centered on to whom the dissent would be expressed. The authors used four potential dissent audiences: supervisors, subordinates, coworkers and people ... .... doi: 10.1080/01463373.2012.725001 Gerbner, G. (1990). Epilogue: Advancing on the path of righteousness (maybe). In N. Signorielli & M. Morgan (Eds.), Cultivation analysis: New directions in media effects research (pp. 249Ã¢â¬â262). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Morgan, M. (2000). On George GerbnerÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to communication theory, research, and social action. In M. Morgan (Ed.), Against the mainstream: The selected works of George Gerbner (pp. 1Ã¢â¬â20). New York: Peter Lang. Shapiro,M., & Lang, A. (1991).Making television reality: Unconscious processes in the construction of social reality. Communication Research, 18, 685Ã¢â¬â705. doi: 10.1177=009365091018005007 Shrum, L. J. (1997). The role of source confusion in cultivation effects may depend on processing strategy: A comment on Mares. Human Communication Research, 24, 349Ã¢â¬â358. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.1997.tb00418.x
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Non-governmental organizations and Inter-governmental organization are defined as actors in the international level which operate and they carry out their activities without any state control. Non-governmental organizations are formed voluntarily by citizens, with the aim of charitable participation within the organization. They are independent within the laws of society and are managed by those elected or the appointed board. Its legal status is based on freedom of association, one of the most basic human rights. This paper will focus on various aspects of these two kinds of organizations and their effects on the international relations of a state. NGOs are not established with the purpose of making profit rather they are engaged in revenue-generating activities. The revenue obtained is used in pursuit of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission. Employees get the proper reward for relevant work done. Nevertheless, boards are not paid for the work they do but are reimbursed for any expense they incur in executing board duties. In addition, NGOs aims at improving the circumstances and prospects of people and to act on issues detrimental to the well being of the society as a whole (Ahmed & Potter, 2008). There exists great diversification in terms of independence, size of business, source of funding, international reach and operating procedures. These organizations can execute projects, shield or promote specific causes and seek to manipulate policy. NGOs are not subject to international law and include organizations like Amnesty international, the International chamber of Commerce and International Red Cross. IGOsÃ Intergovernmental organizations, commonly abbreviated as IGOs, comprise of sovereign states that are positioned to carry out projects and plans in common interest. NGOs act in conjunction with IGOs by complimenting IGO- initiated and funded programmes, as operational partners. IGOs include organizations like the European Union and the international financial institutions, World Bank. Most of IGOs work for and are financed by rich corporations and some state governments (Beigbeder, 1991). They are important aspect of public international law and are formed by treaty that acts as a bond creating the group. IGOs plays a major role by providing means of cooperation and multiple channels of communication between and among states in fields which cooperation and communication provides advantages for almost all nations. With the major roles of IGOs as rule making, data collection and agenda setting, they decrease uncertainty between states and explore cooperative solution for international problems. IGOs may manipulate norms of international relations and preferences of nation-states; for instance, the United Nations Environment Program which played key role in the conception of regimes such as the protection of the Mediterranean Sea. A well known case is the International Atomic Energy Agency which evidenced that IGOs play a significant role in monitoring principles, norms and rules of international institutions and international regimes. Infrastructure has developed within states as IGOs are greatly concerned with technical issues like telecommunication, postal services, transportation and environmental management. Economic development has been witnessed with IMF and the World Bank being successful in money flowing, debt management and financing debt issues between rich and poor states. States are able to obtain information about the international society and politics. Decisions made by IGOs are as a result of negotiations among the governmental agents assigned to them. Activities of IGOs such as the UN and the IMF are seen to be more influential for most diminutive countries as compared with countries with very big powers as they are not constrained too much by their principles. NGOs exists in many kinds such as transnational, governmental organized, governmental regulated and initiated, business and industry, transnational social movements and anti-governmental. For the recent decade their effectiveness for transnational politics has become pertinent and their number increased. NGOs mobilize universal networks by creating transnational organizations, gathering data on local conditions through associates around the world, creating immediate response and drum up pressure from the outside states. NGOs work hand in hand with IGOs by participating in their conferences and engaging in social appointments, building communal coalitions, raising new agendas and addressing IGOs meetings (Beigbeder, 1991). They also maintain inter-state collaboration by preparing backing papers, reports and refining delegates of states to narrow technical gap, intensifying policy options and bringing delegates together. They carry out activities within states such as linking to local partners and transnational movements, providing humanitarian aid protecting persons in danger. NGOs promote public participation within states by bringing awareness to the government delegates that they are being watched. This is achieved through the endless effort in increasing transparency and honesty of international negotiations and public institutions and aggravating public protest. They do mobilization of international community to fight against oppression, afflict, group and personal rights. Effects of NGOs and NGOs on international relations of a state Non-state actors have caused great transformation in international relations as they have become the major determinants of foreign policies of nation states as they have remained active in playing their major roles in more than one state. They are involved in both domestic and international settings. Through their personal connection with their employees, they help nation states to solve problems such as climatological changes, shortage of food, poverty, and insufficient natural resources. In many cases of political conflicts like the cold war which resulted to tribalism and other cultural cleavages, many non-state actors have been involved to solve them and shape national, regional and international policies and thus their role has been widely accepted by many political scientists. However, these scientists only differed on the level of relevance and effectiveness of non-state actors. Intergovernmental organizations and Non-governmental organizations are included in the part of world system and are source of effectiveness in international politics. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, it has become quite difficult to evaluate international politics and pattern without attaching the great influence of non-state actors which are gaining position. Moreover, non-state actors have shown concern with the rural poor and have managed to maintain field presence in distant locations where it quite difficult to keep government staff in station. They have identified the needs of the rural poor in terms of agricultural developments. They have also implemented new systems for testing new technology such as soya production in Bangladesh (Ahmed & Potter, 2008). In other cases, non-state actors have assisted to organize landless labourers to get and operate water pumping technology and irrigation schemes. Concisely, they have sustained joint efforts in soil and water conservation whether is on private land or on micro-watershed areas. ConclusionÃ In conclusion, increased transactions, awareness and common concern on regional and global problems require collaboration between states and non-state actors so as to maintain their welfare. These organizations will also require further cooperation and communication among themselves to strengthen their effectiveness as actors in the implementation of sustainable achievement. Nation-states including the most powerful one, the United States, have to attach great significance to non-state actors in order to improve and achieve their main interests.